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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (6)
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  • Articles  (270)
  • DKFZ Publication Database  (6)
  • 1
    Abstract: Molecular imaging studies have recently found inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas. A correlative analysis with tumor histology, however, is still lacking. For elucidation we conducted the current prospective study. Fifty-five adult patients with an MRI-based suspicion of a WHO grade II glioma were included. [F-18]Fluoroethyltyrosine ((18)FET) uptake kinetic studies were combined with frame-based stereotactic localization techniques and used as a guide for stepwise (1-mm steps) histopathological evaluation throughout the tumor space. In tumors with heterogeneous PET findings, the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status and expression of mutated protein isocitrate dehydrogenase variant R132H (IDH1) were determined inside and outside of hot spot volumes. Metabolic imaging revealed 3 subgroups: the homogeneous WHO grade II glioma group (30 patients), the homogeneous malignant glioma group (10 patients), and the heterogeneous group exhibiting both low- and high-grade characteristics at different sites (15 patients). Stepwise evaluation of 373 biopsy samples indicated a strong correlation with analyses of uptake kinetics (p 〈 0.0001). A homogeneous pattern of uptake kinetics was linked to homogeneous histopathological findings, whereas a heterogeneous pattern was associated with histopathological heterogeneity; hot spots exhibiting malignant glioma characteristics covered 4-44% of the entire tumor volumes. Both MGMT and IDH1 status were identical at different tumor sites and not influenced by heterogeneity. Maps of (18)FET uptake kinetics strongly correlated with histopathology in suspected grade II gliomas. Anaplastic foci can be accurately identified, and this finding has implications for prognostic evaluation and treatment planning.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21292686
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  • 2
    Abstract: To perform their various functions, protein surfaces often have to interact with each other in a specific way. Usually, only parts of a protein are accessible and can act as binding sites. Because proteins consist of polypeptide chains that fold into complex three-dimensional shapes, binding sites can be divided into two different types: linear sites that follow the primary amino acid sequence and discontinuous binding sites, which are made up of short peptide fragments that are adjacent in spatial proximity. Such discontinuous binding sites dominate protein-protein interactions, but are difficult to identify. To meet this challenge, we combined a computational, structure-based approach and an experimental, high-throughput method. SUPERFICIAL is a program that uses protein structures as input and generates peptide libraries to represent the protein's surface. A large number of the predicted peptides can be simultaneously synthesised applying the SPOT technology. The results of a binding assay subsequently help to elucidate protein-protein interactions; the approach is applicable to any kind of protein. The crystal structure of the complex of hen egg lysozyme with the well-characterised murine IgG1 antibody HyHEL-5 is available, and the complex is known to have a discontinuous binding site. Using SUPERFICIAL, the entire surface of lysozyme was translated into a peptide library that was synthesised on a cellulose membrane using the SPOT technology and tested against the HyHEL-5 antibody. In this way, it was possible to identify two peptides (longest common sequence and peptide 19) that represented the discontinuous epitope of lysozyme.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23280614
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; PATHWAY ; POPULATION ; DISTINCT ; TUMORS ; MICE ; MOUSE ; MARKERS ; SONIC HEDGEHOG ; PRECURSORS ; WNT ; ORIGIN ; FEATURES ; medulloblastoma ; SUBTYPES ; SUBGROUPS ; brainstem ; SHH ; Cochlear nuclei ; GRANULE NEURON PRECURSORS ; RHOMBIC LIP DERIVATIVES
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor of childhood that comprises at least four molecularly distinct subgroups. We have previously described that cerebellar granule neuron precursors may give rise to the subgroup with a molecular fingerprint of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Other recent data indicate that precursor cells within the dorsal brain stem may serve as cellular origins for Wnt-associated medulloblastomas. To see whether Shh-associated medulloblastomas are also able to develop in the dorsal brainstem, we analyzed two lines of transgenic mice with constitutive Shh signaling in hGFAP- and Math1-positive brainstem precursor populations, respectively. Our results show that in both of these lines, medulloblastomas arise from granule neuron precursors of the cochlear nuclei, a derivative of the auditory lower rhombic lip. This region is distinct from derivatives of precerebellar lower rhombic lip where medulloblastomas arise in mice with constitutive-active Wnt signaling. With respect to their histology and the expression of appropriate markers, Shh tumors from the murine cochlear nuclei perfectly resemble human Shh-associated medulloblastomas. Moreover, we find that in a series of 63 human desmoplastic medulloblastomas, 21 (33%) have a very close contact to the cochlear nuclei on MR imaging. In conclusion, we demonstrate that precursors of the murine rhombic lip, which either develop into cerebellar or into cochlear granule neurons, may give rise to Shh-associated medulloblastoma, and this has important implications for the cellular origin of human medulloblastomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22349907
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  • 4
  • 5
    Keywords: INHIBITOR ; Germany ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; EFFICIENCY ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; CONTRAST ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; ACID ; virus ; MUTANT ; NO ; REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTASE ; DIFFERENCE ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; resistance ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; REPLICATION ; sensitivity ; foamy virus ; INHIBITORS ; HIV-1 ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RECOMBINANT ; RE ; SUBSTRATE ; ENZYME ; MUTANTS ; ENGLAND ; Escherichia coli ; POLYMERIZATION ; MEDIATED EXCISION ; PRIMER-UNBLOCKING ; RNASE-H ; SELECTIVE EXCISION ; ZIDOVUDINE
    Abstract: Azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine) is one of the few nucleoside inhibitors known to inhibit foamy virus replication. We have shown previously that up to four mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of simian foamy virus from macaque (SFVmac) are necessary to confer high resistance against AZT. To characterize the mechanism of AZT resistance we expressed two recombinant reverse transcriptases of highly AZT-resistant SFVmac in Escherichia coli harboring three (K211I, S345T, E350K) or four mutations (K211I, I224T, S345T, E350K) in the reverse transcriptase gene. Our analyses show that the polymerization activity of these mutants is impaired. In contrast to the AZT-resistant reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, the AZT resistant enzymes of SFVmac reveal differences in their kinetic properties. The SFVmac enzymes exhibit lower specific activities on poly(rA)/oligo(dT) and higher K-M-values for polymerization but no change in K-D-values for DNA/DNA or RNA/DNA substrates. The AZT resistance of the mutant enzymes is based on the excision of the incorporated inhibitor in the presence of ATP. The additional amino acid change of the quadruple mutant appears to be important for regaining polymerization efficiency
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18096624
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  • 6
    Keywords: INHIBITOR ; CELL ; Germany ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENOME ; MECHANISM ; SEQUENCE ; culture ; virus ; ACQUISITION ; REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTASE ; resistance ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; PURIFICATION ; PHENOTYPE ; REPLICATION ; SELECTION ; foamy virus ; POL ; ORDER ; molecular ; ENZYME ; POL PROTEINS ; REPLICATION STRATEGY ; USA ; NOR ; viral ; block ; reverse transcriptase ; NUCLEOTIDE ; viruses ; AZT resistance ; RIBONUCLEASE-H DOMAINS ; TYPE-1 RESISTANT ; ZIDOVUDINE AZT
    Abstract: Azidothymidine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor that efficiently blocks the replication of spumaretroviruses or foamy viruses (FVs). To more precisely elucidate the mechanism of action of the FV RT enzyme, we generated an AZT-resistant FV in cell culture. Biologically resistant virus was obtained for simian foamy virus from macaque (SFVmac), which was insensitive to AZT concentrations of 1 mM, but not for FVs derived from chimpanzees. Nucleotide sequencing revealed four non-silent mutations in the pol gene. Introduction of these mutations into an infectious molecular clone identified all changes to be required for the fully AZT-resistant phenotype of SFVmac. The alteration of individual sites showed that AZT resistance in SFVmac was likely acquired by consecutive acquisition of pol mutations in a defined order, because some alterations on their own did not result in an efficiently replicating virus, neither in the presence nor in the absence of AZT. The introduction of the mutations into the RT of the closely related prototypic FV (PFV) did not yield an AZT-resistant virus, instead they significantly impaired the viral fitness. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17904181
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