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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (92)
  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; DRUG ; DIFFERENTIATION ; INDUCTION ; ACID ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; ASSAY ; CANCER-CELLS ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE ; histone deacetylase inhibitor ; p21(waf1) ; neuroblastoma ; INVITRO ; LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; ONCOLOGY ; CHILDHOOD ; RE ; medulloblastoma ; cell proliferation ; ASSAYS ; pharmacology ; USA ; anticancer drug ; childhood cancer ; HELMINTHOSPORIUM-CARBONUM (HC)-TOXIN ; HKI46F08
    Abstract: Embryonic childhood cancer such as neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma are still a therapeutic challenge requiring novel treatment approaches. Here, we investigated the antitumoral effects of HKI 46F08, a novel trifluoromethyl ketone histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with a nonhydroxamic acid type structure. HKI 46F08 inhibits in-vitro HDAC activity in cell-free assays with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.6 mu mol/l and intracellular HDAC activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.8 mu mol/l. The compound reduces viability of both cultured neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma cells with an EC50 of 0.1-4 mu mol/l. HKI 461708 efficiently arrests tumor cell proliferation, represses clonogenic growth and induces differentiation and apoptosis in both MYCN-amplified and nonamplified neuroblastoma cells. In summary, we identified HKI 48F08 as a structural novel, potent HDAC inhibitor with strong antitumoral activity against embryonic childhood cancer cells in the low micromolar range
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18765999
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; THERAPY ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DRUG ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; NEUROBLASTOMA-CELLS ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; prognosis ; mechanisms ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; MEMBERS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; MOUSE ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; CELL-DEATH ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; chemotherapy ; MOUSE MODEL ; TARGETS ; CHILDREN ; HDAC inhibitors ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE ; INTERFERON-ALPHA ; REPRESSION ; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; neuroblastoma ; HDAC ; INHIBITORS ; ADULT ; review ; FAMILIES ; THERAPIES ; tumor suppressor gene ; EPIGENETICS ; CANCERS ; valproic acid ; Phase I ; SODIUM VALPROATE ; MALIGNANT PHENOTYPE ; NUCLEAR EXPORT ; drug targets ; DRUG-TARGET ; HDAC inhibitor
    Abstract: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an emerging class of novel anti-cancer drug targets. Recently, studies in adult cancers and in neuroblastoma have shown that individual HDAC family members are aberrantly expressed in tumors and correlate with disease stage and prognosis. In neuroblastoma, knockdown of individual HDAC family members causes distinct phenotypes ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. HDACs are involved in controlling MYCN function and are upregulated in chemotherapy-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Treatment with unselective pan-HDAC inhibitors causes cell cycle arrest, differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of clonogenic growth of neuroblastoma cells, and restores susceptibility to chemotherapy treatment. The molecular mechanisms mediating the anti-cancer effects of HDAC inhibitors on neuroblastoma cells are incompletely understood and involve targeting of aberrant epigenetic repression of tumor suppressor genes, activation of developmental differentiation pathways, as well as changing the acetylation level and function of non-histone proteins. In neuroblastoma mouse models, unselective HDAC inhibitors demonstrate antitumoral effects. First phase I clinical trials in children with refractory cancers using HDAC inhibitors depsipeptide and the recently approved vorinostat are underway. This review summarizes our current knowledge about classical HDAC family members as novel drug targets for neuroblastoma therapy and discusses the potential role of next generation, selective HDAC inhibitors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19199971
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; PHASE-I ; THERAPY ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; GENE ; GENES ; DRUG ; TUMORS ; MICE ; MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION ; FAMILY ; MEMBERS ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; CANCER-CELLS ; TARGETS ; HDAC inhibitors ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE ; histone deacetylase inhibitor ; HDAC ; INHIBITORS ; SINGLE ; review ; FAMILIES ; IV ; CLASS-II ; development ; PHASE ; COMPOUND ; HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR-1-ALPHA ; REFRACTORY SOLID TUMORS ; VIVO ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; drug targets ; DRUG-TARGET ; HDAC inhibitor ; CONTROLS CHONDROCYTE HYPERTROPHY
    Abstract: Histone deacetylases comprise a family of 18 genes, which are grouped into classes I-IV based on their homology to their respective yeast orthologues. Classes I, II, and IV consist of 11 family members, which are referred to as "classical" HDACs, whereas the 7 class III members are called sirtuins. Classical HDACs are a promising novel class of anti-cancer drug targets. First HDAC inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials and show activity against several cancer diseases. However, these compounds act unselectively against several or all 11 HDAC family members. As a consequence, clinical phase 1 trials document a wide range of side effects. Therefore, the current challenge in the field is to define the cancer relevant HDAC family member(s) in a given tumor type and to design selective inhibitors, which target cancer cells but leave out normal cells. Knockout of single HDAC family members in mice produces a variety of phenotypes ranging from early embryonic death to viable animals with only discrete alterations, indicating that potential side effects of HDAC inhibitors depend on the selectivity of the compounds. Recently, several studies have shown that certain HDAC family members are aberrantly expressed in several tumors and have non-redundant function in controlling hallmarks of cancer cells. The aim of this review is to discuss individual HDAC family members as drug targets in cancer taking into consideration their function under physiological conditions and their oncogenic potential in malignant disease. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18824292
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  • 4
  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; ABERRATIONS ; METHYLATION ; EMBRYONIC STEM-CELLS ; MULTIFORME ; HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS ; TELOMERES ; INTEGRATED GENOMIC ANALYSIS ; ATRX
    Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases(1-4). To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked)(5) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres(6,7), were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22286061
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; GENES ; ACTIVATION ; MUTATIONS ; SUBGROUPS ; LANDSCAPE ; TETRAPLOID TUMOR-CELLS ; TBR1
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22832583
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  • 7
    Keywords: proliferation ; TUMORS ; METHYLATION ; CELL-GROWTH ; medulloblastoma ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; MULTIPLE GENES ; DISTINCT SUBGROUPS ; INTRACRANIAL EPENDYMOMA ; DRIVER MUTATIONS
    Abstract: Ependymoma is the third most common pediatric brain tumor, yet because of the paucity of effective therapeutic interventions, 45% of patients remain incurable. Recent transcriptional and copy number profiling of the disease has identified few driver genes and in fact points to a balanced genomic profile. Candidate gene approaches looking at hypermethylated promoters and genome-wide epigenetic arrays suggest that DNA methylation may be critical to ependymoma pathogenesis. This review attempts to highlight existing and emerging evidence implicating the ependymoma epigenome as a key player and that epigenetic modifiers may offer new targeted therapeutic avenues for patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23432646
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  • 8
    Abstract: MYCN is a master regulator controlling many processes necessary for tumor cell survival. Here, we unravel a microRNA network that causes tumor suppressive effects in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. In profiling studies, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor treatment most strongly induced miR-183. Enforced miR-183 expression triggered apoptosis, and inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation in vitro and xenograft growth in mice. Furthermore, the mechanism of miR-183 induction was found to contribute to the cell death phenotype induced by HDAC inhibitors. Experiments to identify the HDAC(s) involved in miR-183 transcriptional regulation showed that HDAC2 depletion induced miR-183. HDAC2 overexpression reduced miR-183 levels and counteracted the induction caused by HDAC2 depletion or HDAC inhibitor treatment. MYCN was found to recruit HDAC2 in the same complexes to the miR-183 promoter, and HDAC2 depletion enhanced promoter-associated histone H4 pan-acetylation, suggesting epigenetic changes preceded transcriptional activation. These data reveal miR-183 tumor suppressive properties in neuroblastoma that are jointly repressed by MYCN and HDAC2, and suggest a novel way to bypass MYCN function.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23625969
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  • 9
    Keywords: GROWTH ; IRRADIATION ; THERAPY ; MDM2 ; ANTAGONIST ; HYPOXIA ; MACULAR DEGENERATION ; CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION ; PERIOCULAR TRIAMCINOLONE ; RANIBIZUMAB
    Abstract: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the Western world. Cytokine-targeted therapies (such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) are effective in treating pathologic ocular angiogenesis, but have not led to a durable effect and often require indefinite treatment. Here, we show that Nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2, inhibited angiogenesis in several model systems. We found that a functional p53 pathway was essential for Nutlin-3-mediated retinal antiangiogenesis and disruption of the p53 transcriptional network abolished the antiangiogenic activity of Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 did not inhibit established, mature blood vessels in the adult mouse retina, suggesting that only proliferating retinal vessels are sensitive to Nutlin-3. Furthermore, Nutlin-3 inhibited angiogenesis in nonretinal models such as the hind limb ischemia model. Our work demonstrates that Nutlin-3 functions through an antiproliferative pathway with conceivable advantages over existing cytokine-targeted antiangiogenesis therapies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24018558
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  • 10
    Keywords: INHIBITOR ; CLASSIFICATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; transcription ; RECRUITMENT ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE ; N-MYC ; B-CELL LYMPHOMAS ; HIGH-RISK NEUROBLASTOMA ; PEDIATRIC SOLID TUMORS
    Abstract: Neuroblastoma is an embryonic solid tumor of neural crest origin and accounts for 11% of all cancer-related deaths in children. Novel therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently required. MYCN oncogene amplification, which occurs in 20% of neuroblastomas, is a hallmark of high risk. Here we aimed to exploit molecular mechanisms that can be pharmacologically addressed with epigenetically modifying drugs, such as HDAC inhibitors. GRHL1, a gene critical for Drosophila neural development, belonged to the genes most strongly responding to HDAC inhibitor treatment of neuroblastoma cells in a genome-wide screen. An increase in the histone H4 pan-acetylation associated with its promoter preceded transcriptional activation. Physically adjacent, HDAC3 and MYCN co-localized to the GRHL1 promoter and repressed its transcription. High-level GRHL1 expression in primary neuroblastomas correlated on transcriptional and translational levels with favorable patient survival and established clinical and molecular markers for favorable tumor biology, including lack of MYCN amplification. Enforced GRHL1 expression in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells with low endogenous GRHL1 levels abrogated anchorage-independent colony formation, inhibited proliferation and retarded xenograft growth in mice. GRHL1 knock-down in MYCN single-copy cells with high endogenous GRHL1 levels promoted colony formation. GRHL1 regulated 170 genes genome-wide, and most were involved in pathways regulated during neuroblastomagenesis, including nervous system development, proliferation, cell-cell adhesion, cell spreading and cellular differentiation. In summary, the data presented here indicate a significant role of HDAC3 in the MYCN-mediated repression of GRHL1 and suggest drugs that block HDAC3 activity and suppress MYCN expression as promising candidates for novel treatment strategies of high-risk neuroblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24419085
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