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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DENSITY ; COHORT ; HISTORY ; RISK ; FAMILY ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRIAL ; family history ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; cancer risk ; MAMMOGRAPHY ; case-control studies ; case-control study ; population-based case-control study ; HORMONE-REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; SCREEN ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN ; HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; breast cancer risks ; family history of cancer ; HRT USE ; risk-modifying factors
    Abstract: Objectives: Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) is an established risk factor for breast cancer. HRT users are different from non-users with respect to socio-economic and other characteristics. There may be women where the HRT-related risk could be modulated by other factors. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study with 688 breast cancer cases and 724 controls to characterize HRT users and to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for HRT use and potentially risk modifying factors. Results: In women aged 50 years and older, 58% of controls and 61% of cases ever used HRT. Among women in natural menopause, HRT use for 10 years and more years was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), but not among women in surgical menopause (OR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.09-4.17). In the subgroup of women with a positive family history of breast cancer, each year of HRT use increased the risk by 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.47). Another subgroup comprised women with at least 10 diagnostic mammograms (OR 4.04, 95% CI, 1.10-14.81 for using HRT 10 or more years). Conclusions: Long-term HRT use was associated with a breast cancer risk in women with natural menopause. Our findings suggest that this risk may be increased in women with a positive family history of breast cancer and in women who received frequent diagnostic mammographic screens
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16151884
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GENDER DIFFERENCES ; AGE ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; SMOKERS ; case-control study ; RE ; CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS ; DRINKING-WATER ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; GENDER ; pooled analysis ; tobacco smoke ; LOWER URINARY-TRACT ; OCCUPATIONAL RISK-FACTORS
    Abstract: Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case-control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated differences in risk of smoking by gender. Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406 controls (28% women) aged 30-79 years. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for smoking were adjusted for age and study. Exposure-response was evaluated in a stratified analysis by gender and by generalized additive models. Results The odds ratios for current smokers compared to nonsmokers were 3.9 (95% CI 3.5-4.3) for males and 3.6 (3.1-4.1) for females. In 11 out of 14 studies, ORs were slightly higher in men. ORs for current smoking were similar for men (OR = 3.4) and women (OR = 3.7) in North America, while in Europe men (OR = 5.3) had higher ORs than women (OR = 3.9). ORs increased with duration and intensity in both genders and the exposure-response patterns were remarkably similar between genders. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that women have a higher relative risk of smoking-related bladder cancer than men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16421239
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