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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (5)
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    Abstract: AIM: Nuclear alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) loss and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) are linked in distinct malignancies. We therefore aimed to determine the nuclear ATRX expression correlated with ALT in a comprehensive series of sarcomas. METHODS: 573 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sarcomas comprising 28 entities were investigated for nuclear ATRX expression by immunohistochemistry. Telomere-specific FISH was used to determine the ALT phenotype in 50 sarcomas with complete or heterogeneous ATRX loss. RESULTS: Complete nuclear ATRX loss was detected in 58 of 573 sarcomas, all high-grade, with the highest prevalence in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (38%) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (38%), followed by dedifferentiated liposarcomas (24%), osteosarcomas (21%), leiomyosarcomas (17%), myxofibrosarcomas (11%) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4%). Interestingly, further 20 sarcomas, all belonging to the aforementioned entities with complete ATRX loss, presented with a heterogeneous ATRX expression pattern. ALT was observed in 41/42 sarcomas with complete ATRX loss, but only in 2/8 sarcomas with heterogeneous expression. CONCLUSION: Nuclear ATRX loss, either complete or heterogeneous, is encountered in a considerable number of high-grade sarcomas with non-specific genetic alterations. A causal relationship with ALT might be indicated at least in cases with a complete nuclear ATRX loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26291601
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  • 3
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Altered FGFR1 signaling has emerged as therapeutic target in epithelial malignancies. In contrast, the role of FGFR1 in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) has not been established. Prompted by the detection and subsequent therapeutic inhibition of amplified FGFR1 in a patient with metastatic leiomyosarcoma, we investigated the oncogenic properties and potential as drug target of FGFR1 in STS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The frequency of FGFR1 amplification and overexpression, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization and mRNA expression profiling, SNP array profiling, and RNA sequencing, was determined in three patient cohorts. The sensitivity of STS cell lines with or without FGFR1 alterations to genetic and pharmacologic FGFR1 inhibition and the signaling pathways engaged by FGFR1 were investigated using viability assays, colony formation assays, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: Increased FGFR1 copy number was detected in 74 of 190 (38.9%; Cohort 1), 13 of 79 (16.5%; Cohort 2), and 80 of 254 (31.5%; Cohort 3) patients. FGFR1 overexpression occurred in 16 of 79 (20.2%, Cohort 2) and 39 of 254 (15.4%; Cohort 3) patients. Targeting of FGFR1 by RNA interference and small-molecule inhibitors (PD173074, AZD4547, BGJ398) revealed that the requirement for FGFR1 signaling in STS cells is dictated by FGFR1 expression levels, and identified the MAPK-ERK1/2 axis as critical FGFR1 effector pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify FGFR1 as driver gene in multiple STS subtypes and support FGFR1 inhibition, guided by patient selection according to FGFR1 expression and monitoring of MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling, as therapeutic option in this challenging group of diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27535980
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  • 4
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To report our experience with surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 156 patients (69 primary, 87 recurrent) treated with IORT since 1991. The dominant histology was dedifferentiated liposarcoma (49%); 89% of lesions were high grade. Median tumor size was 11 cm. Surgery resulted in gross complete resection in 92%, and 65% had microscopically positive margins. Median IORT dose was 15 Gy. A total of 114 patients (73%) received additional EBRT (preoperatively n=38, postoperatively n=76, median dose 45 Gy). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 38 months (49 months in survivors). The 3- and 5-year local control (LC) rates were 57% and 50%, respectively. On univariate analysis, LC was significantly associated with primary versus recurrent status, histology, grade, Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage, resection margin, and addition of EBRT. The 5-year LC was 71% in the primary situation and 79% after R0 resection. On multivariate analysis only disease status, grade, resection margin, and addition of EBRT remained statistically significant. The 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66% and 56%. On univariate analysis, OS was significantly associated with primary versus recurrent status, histology, grade, UICC stage, resection margin, and timing of EBRT. The 5-year OS was 63% in the primary situation and 68% after R0 resection. On multivariate analysis only disease status, grade, and resection margin remained independent prognostic factors. Perioperative mortality was 1%, and major complications occurred in 34% (mainly wound complications). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with surgery, IORT, and EBRT is feasible and resulted in good LC and OS, with acceptable morbidity in this unfavorable patient cohort. Incomplete resection and recurrent status resulted in clearly inferior outcomes. Reasonable efforts should be made during primary treatment to prevent the onset of a local recurrence.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29353660
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; DISEASE ; TISSUE ; MICE ; ANTIGEN ; AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; cytokines ; IN-SITU ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; INVOLVEMENT ; INTERFERON ; FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; pancreatic carcinoma ; chronic pancreatitis ; inflammation ; CYTOKINE ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; PHASE ; regulatory T cells ; LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS ; SCLEROSING PANCREATITIS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by alternating phases of acute inflammation and quiescent disease. Involvement of T-cell responses has been suggested, but pancreatitis-specific T cells have not been described. METHODS: We characterized T-cell responses against pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma-associated antigens, and tetanus toxoid in the bone marrow, blood, and/or pancreatitis lesions of patients with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and healthy individuals. T cells were functionally characterized by antigen-dependent secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (Il)-4, and IL-10, which indicate type 1, type 2, or regulatory T-cell responses, respectively. Regulatory T cells were characterized by multicolor flow cytometry. Isolated regulatory T cells were tested for their capacity to recognize pancreatitis-associated antigens and to suppress conventional T cells in an antigen-dependent manner. T cell-derived cytokines in tissue lesions were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Chronic pancreatitis patients showed similar to pancreatic cancer patients and healthy individuals type 1 T-cell responses against tetanus toxoid; however, they exhibited strong IL-10-based T-cell responses against pancreatitis-associated but not pancreatic carcinoma-associated antigens. T cells from pancreatic cancer patients responded to pancreatic cancer-associated but not pancreatitis-associated antigens with IFN-gamma secretion. Pancreatitis-specific IL-10 responses were mediated by IL-10(+)IFN-gamma(-)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, which were expanded in the blood, bone marrow, and pancreatitis lesions and possessed the potential to suppress the proliferation of autologous conventional T cells in an antigen-specific manner. Pancreatitis lesions, in comparison with pancreatic carcinomas, contained increased concentrations of IL-10 and reduced levels of IFN-gamma, suggesting pancreatitis-specific activity of regulatory T cells in situ. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pancreatitis is associated with disease-specific regulatory T-cell responses
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19931255
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