X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG) resulting from phosphorylase kinase (Phk) deficiency is one of the most common forms of glycogen storage disease. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the liver isoform of the Phk alpha subunit (PHKA2). In the present study, we address the issue of phenotypic and allelic heterogeneity in XLG. We have identified mutations in seven male patients. One of these patients represents the variant biochemical phenotype, XLG subtype 2 (XLG2), where Phk activity is low in liver but normal or even elevated in erythrocytes. He carries a K189E missense mutation, which adds to the emerging evidence that XLG2 is associated with missense mutations clustering at a few sites. Two patients display clinical phenotypes unusual for liver Phk deficiency, with dysfunction of the kidneys (proximal renal tubular acidosis) or of the nervous system (seizures, delayed cognitive and speech abilities, peripheral sensory neuropathy), respectively, in addition to liver glycogenosis. In the patient with kidney involvement, we have identified a missense mutation (P399S) and a trinucleotide deletion (2858del3) leading to the replacement of two amino acids by one new residue (N953/L954I), and a missense mutation has also been found in the patient with neurological symptoms (G1207W). These two cases demonstrate that PHKA2 mutations can also be associated with uncommon clinical phenotypes. Finally, in four typical XLG cases, we have identified three truncating mutations (70insT, R352X, 567del22) and an in-frame deletion of eight well-conserved amino acids (2452del24). Together, this study adds eight new mutations to the previously known complement of sixteen PHKA2 mutations. All known PHKA2 mutations but one are distinct, indicating pronounced allelic heterogeneity of X-linked liver glycogenosis with mutations in the PHKA2 gene.
Type of Publication:
Journal article published