Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
For the European X-ray multi-mirror (XMM) satellite mission and the German X-ray satellite ABRIXAS, fully depleted pn-CCDs have been fabricated, enabling high-speed low-noise position-resolving X-ray spectroscopy. The detector was designed and fabricated with a homogeneously sensitive area of 36 cm2. At 150 K it has a noise of 4 e− r.m.s., with a readout time of the total focal plane array of 4 ms. The maximum count rate for single-photon counting was 105 counts s−1 under flat-field conditions. In the integration mode more than 109 counts s−1 can be detected at 6 keV. Its position resolution is of the order of 100 µm. The quantum efficiency is higher than 90% from carbon K X-rays (277 eV) up to 10 keV. New cylindrical silicon drift detectors have been designed, fabricated and tested. They comprise an integrated on-chip amplifier system with continuous reset, on-chip voltage divider, electron accumulation layer stabilizer, large area, homogeneous radiation entrance window and a drain for surface-generated leakage current. At count rates as high as 2 × 106 counts cm−2 s−1, they still show excellent spectroscopic behaviour at room-temperature operation in single-photon detection mode. The energy resolution at room temperature is 220 eV at 6 keV X-ray energy and 140 eV at 253 K, being achieved with Peltier coolers. These systems were operated at synchrotron light sources (ESRF, HASYLAB and NLS) as X-ray fluorescence spectrometers in scanning electron microscopes and as ultra low noise photodiodes. The operation of a multi-channel silicon drift detector system is already foreseen at synchrotron light sources for X-ray holography experiments. All systems are fabricated in planar technology having the detector and amplifiers monolithically integrated on high-resistivity silicon.
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