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  • Articles  (184)
  • Physics  (184)
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  • Articles  (184)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: As device features scale down to 90nm and Cu/low-k films are employed for back end interconnects, post etch and ash residue cleaning becomes increasingly challenging due to the higher aspect ratio of the features, tighter CD control requirements, sensitivity of the low-k films, and the requirement for high wet etch selectivity between CuxO and Cu. Traditional solvent based cleaning in wet benches has additional issues such as wafer cross-contamination and high disposalcost [1, 2]. We have developed a novel aqueous solution (AQ) based single wafer cleaning process to address these challenges. The results of physical characterization, process integration electrical data, and process integration reliability data such as electromigration (EM) and stress migration data are presented. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) The single wafer cleaning process developed on the Oasis™ system can clean post etch residues and simultaneously clean the wafer front side and backside metallic contaminants; (2) In terms CuxO and Cu wet etch selectivity, CD loss control, the Oasis™ aqueous single wafer clean process is superior to the bench solvent cleaning process; (3)The Oasis aqueous cleaning process shows no undercut below etchstop due to the very low Cu etch amount in one cleaning pass, therefore the electromigration and stress migration performance of the aqueous Oasis processed wafers is clearly better than that of the solvent bench processed wafers
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Non-isothermal flows ; Polymeric liquids ; Thermodynamics ; Non-Newtonian fluids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The thermodynamics and mechanics of non-isothermal polymeric fluids are examined within the auspices of a new methodology wherein the laws of physics and principles of mechanics which are applicable to these thermodynamic systems are imbedded in a definite mathematical structure of a general, abstract equation. Such a concept allows new insight to be obtained concerning some aspects of non-isothermal flows of polymeric fluids, and permits a consistent expression and interpretation of other thermodynamic theories for these systems which have been developed over the past forty years. A major portion of this article is devoted to demonstrating the above statements, and in so doing some common misconceptions occurring in a significant fraction of the literature regarding this subject are exposed. The definite mathematical structure of the new methodology permits the thermodynamically consistent generalization of isothermal, incompressible models of polymeric fluids to non-isothermal, compressible conditions. Doing thus reproduces, corrects, and extends non-isothermal models which have been developed over the years, and also allows for simpler (but equivalent) representations of these models in terms of alternate variables with a clearer connection to the microstructure of the material than the stress tensor and heat flux vector fields. Furthermore, a generalization of the GENERIC structure is proposed that accommodates interactions between phenomena of differing parities, which impose antisymmetry upon the corresponding elements of the dissipative operator matrix.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Theoretical calculations using a two-state model of counterion phosphate interactions have been performed in order to determine the electrostatic stability of DNA in various ionic environments. Comparison of the stabilities of different conformations leads to results consistent with the B→Z transitions observed in high-salt environments and suggest that at very low ionic strnegths the left-handed Z(II) form is an electrostatically preferred conformation. An ion-type dependence of the high-salt B→Z transition midpoint is predicted. Calculations of the energies of the A and C conformations are also discussed in relation to experimentally observed transitions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 69 (1991), S. 569-573 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The wavelength of semiconductor lasers generally increases with increased output power due to changes in laser gain with current and temperature. Time-resolved studies of the optical spectrum during the write-pulse train clearly depicted the quasirandom mode hopping that occurred. In optically dispersive systems, the wavelength shifts caused significant write-spot displacements down at the recording surface and affected mark lengths. Thermal modeling studies successfully duplicated the salient features of this effect and provided explanations for some of the experimental observations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measured length variations of laser written marks in rare earth–transition metal (RE-TM) optical data storage media were found to be a strong function of test conditions. In particular, the mark length standard deviation was found to be inversely proportional to the difference between the threshold and bias power levels. Differences in mark length variabilities of various RE-TM compositions written with the same bias power were found to be attributable to their differing marking thresholds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This communication provides a detailed examination of the morphology of thin films of CuInSe2 prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on borosilicate glass, molybdenum-coated glass, and CdS substrates. The latter two are used in thin-film heterojunction solar cells of CuInSe2/CdS in the backwall and reverse backwall (RBW) configurations, respectively, and hence are of great technological interest. The pseudoepitaxial growth of CIS on CdS and its low deposition temperature (250 °C) which inhibits interdiffusion suggest that one should prepare CuInSe2/CdS solar cells in the RBW configuration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The complex series of reactions that takes place between WCl6 and cyclopentene was studied spectroscopically. The products of reaction remain soluble when chlorobenzene is used as solvent. A number of intermediates was observed and the kinetics of formation and removal of these was studied in detail. A complex series of reactions was postulated to account for these changes and the significance of each reaction to the overall scheme was determined by computer simulation of the changes that occur. One of the products has particular significance in the scheme of reactions since it is believed that this species is eventually responsible for the monometallic initiation of the polymerization of cyclopentene. The reaction was also studied gas chromatographically when it was shown that the reaction is accompanied by the formation of a complex mixture of products. One of these products was shown to have the mass spectrum that would be expected of 3-chlorocyclopentene and a reaction scheme that would account for its formation is postulated. The reactions involved in the generation of centres active towards the formation of polypentenamer were considered for both monometallic and bimetallic (WCl6/AlR3) catalyst.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Single crystals of poly(diacetylene) 1a with p-tosyloxymethyl side groups undergo photooxidation when irradiated with visible light of wavelength 520 nm or less. The presence of molecular oxygen adsorbed on the surface of the crystals and its subsequent photochemical reaction with the polymer were monitored using resonance Raman spectroscopy and the formation of holographic gratings. Reaction products which were identified include hydroperoxy groups, p-toluenesulfonic acid and poly(diacetylene) oligomers. The photooxidation reaction appears to proceed by the “ene” mechanism; the polymer reacts with singlet oxygen produced by energy transfer with the photoexcited poly(diacetylene) backbone.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The polymerization of cyclopentene in the presence of an unsaturated ester led to the synthesis of low-molecular-weight polypentenamer with a terminal functional group by ringopening metathesis polymerization using WCl6/AlEtCl2/EtOH as catalyst. Unlike most reactions of this nature the efficiency of the catalyst system is high because the ester used possesses an electron withdrawing group, the trichloromethyl group. The presence of this group ensures that the complex formed between the metal carbene complex and the ester group is reduced in stability and catalyst concentrations normally used for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations can be used (mole ratio W : CP = 1 : 1000), the concentrations of ester being quite high (mole ratio ester : CP = 1 : 5). Under these conditions reasonably high yields of liquid polymers are obtained.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 59 (1996), S. 1249-1254 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: As part of an ongoing effort to develop processable, high-performance resins for aerospace applications, a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) oligomer designated LaRCMTPETI-1 was developed. This reactive oligomer has a number-average molecular weight of 6300 g/mol and a Tg of 218°C. Upon curing the reactive oligomer at 350°C for 1 h, a tough material with a Tg of 249°C was obtained. The properties of cured PETI-1 in the form of composites, adhesive specimens, thin films, and neat resin moldings are excellent. The synthesis, characterization, and mechanical properties of this polyimide are discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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