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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The phthalate ester plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affected the phagocytosis and killing ofStaphylococcus aureus by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Pre-exposure to DEHP caused a slight increase in phagocytosis and a dose-dependent inhibition of alveolar macrophage killing ofS. aureus, reaching a 14-fold decrease in the killing index at a concentration of 2 mg DEHP per 100 ml of media. The significance of this inhibition is discussed with respect to the role of the plasticizer in lung disease and macrophage research.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) measured in surficial sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA, were compared to those reported in various industrial process residues and effluents, contaminated soils, chemical formulations, and municipal waste disposal activities that are known or suspected to be sources of these compounds in the aquatic environment. Comparisons were conducted using data from published literature to determine whether the composition of tetra through octachlorinated congeners and 2,3,7,8-substituted residues reported in a broad range of potential environmental sources could explain the presence of these compounds in Newark Bay. Pattern similarities and differences between congener groups and isomers were obtained by principal components analysis. The congener and isomer fingerprint patterns found in surficial sediments appear to be the result of releases from several industrial and municipal sources commonly found in heavily industrialized and populated urban environments, including municipal sewage sludge, municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash, pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, newsprint, scrap metal reclamation incinerators, combustion engines, and pulp and paper mill black liquor recovery furnaces. The variations among the PCDD and PCDF residue and congener patterns were largely explained by the distributions of the hexa- and octachlorinated compounds and by 2,3,7,8,-TCDD, 2,3,7,8,-TCDF, and the penta-substituted isomers. Although it has been claimed that a single industrial source is responsible for the presence of these compounds in the sediments of Newark Bay, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of the PCDDs and PCDFs are the result of contributions from several industries. There is no evidence from this analysis to indicate that a single source is responsible for the contamination.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distributions of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) measured in surficial sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey were compared to those observed in sediments from other waterways located within industrial or heavily populated areas using chemometric techniques. Comparisons were conducted using published data to determine whether the distributions of 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers in surficial sediments from industrialized waterways have similar or different fingerprint patterns. Chemometric evaluations consisted of principal components analysis and the complete linkage: farthest neighbor cluster method. The concentrations of individual isomers were normalized to the combined sum of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF isomer concentrations in order to evaluate relative distribution patterns. Several of the isomeric fingerprint patterns found in sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay were similar to those found in sediments from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA, Black Rock Harbor, CT, USA, Providence River, RI, USA, Eagle Harbor, WA, USA, the Inner Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, Hamburg Harbor, Germany, and St. Laurensharbor, The Netherlands. Pattern differences were observed in sediments from Frierfjorden, Norway, Niagara River, NY, USA, and Chemieharbor, The Netherlands. The variations among the 2,3,7,8-substituted isomer patterns observed in different sediments were largely explained by the distributions of the higher chlorinated isomers. Other differences may be attributed to environmental conditions unique to each waterway such as tidal flux, shipping traffic, urbanization, sedimentation rates, and the presence of different industrial sources. Similarities in PCDD and PCDF patterns among the waterways were related to the presence of similar municipal and industrial sources, including effluents from pentachlorophenol and polychlorinated biphenyl manufacturing facilities, pulp and paper mills, automobile and shipping traffic, and municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators. The distributions of PCDDs and PCDFs in surficial sediments from some areas of the Newark Bay estuary were representative of those found in many industrialized regions. It wsa evident from this analysis that the application of chemometric analysis can be useful in characterizing the distribution of complex multi-constituent chemical residues and identifying sources of these compounds in freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) maintained at 4° or 12°C were forced-fed3H-1-naphthalene. At 24 hr, after the initiation of exposure, significantly (p 〈 0.05) higher concentrations (2 to 15 times) of naphthalene were present in tissues of starry flounder at 4°C than those present in fish held at 12°C. The influence of lowering of water temperature on naphthalene retention was even more marked after one week. At this time, muscle and liver of fish at 4°C contained 26 and 34 times, respectively, more naphthalene than did muscle and liver of fish at 12°C. Concentrations of total metabolites, in most tissues were not substantially higher at the lower temperature either 24 or 168 hr after the naphthalene-exposure. Thin-layer Chromatographic separation of the metabolites revealed that at 24 hr, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (dihydrodiol) was the major component in liver (40 to 50% of extracted metabolites) and muscle (∼-80% of extracted metabolites) regardless of the temperature. Bile contained, primarily, conjugates (e.g., glucuronides), which yielded the dihydrodiol as the principal metabolite on enzymatic hydrolysis. From 24 to 168 hr, the concentrations of each metabolite class did not vary directly with the concentrations of total metabolites. Accordingly, at 168 hr, the ratio of total metabolite concentrations in liver of fish at 4°C compared to 12°C was 1.6, whereas the ratios for the dihydrodiol, sulfate/glucoside conjugates and glucuronide conjugates were 4.5, 0.6 and 3.8 respectively. Generally, lowered water temperature increased tissue concentrations of the parent hydrocarbon and its metabolites. However, the magnitude of the increase was dependent upon the compound, the tissue, and the time after the initiation of the exposure. The results emphasize the importance of determining concentrations of individual metabolites together with parent hydrocarbons in tissues of fish when assessing effects of environmental parameters on xenobiotic toxicity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata) were force-fed 56 μCi each of 1-3H-naphthalene dissolved in salmon oil. Values for radioactivity associated with naphthalene and the metabolite fraction were determined for various tissues and body fluids. Results show that these pleuronectids extensively metabolize dietary naphthalene. The rates of decline in naphthalene concentrations (expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram of dry tissue) were greater than the rates of decline in metabolite concentrations (dpm/mg) in liver, blood, and skin; therefore, relative proportion of metabolites to naphthalene increased with time and at 168 hr after the initiation of the naphthalene-exposure, more than half of the total radioactivity in both species of fish was associated with the metabolites. Profiles of metabolites in liver, skin, and bile were obtained using thin-layer chromatography. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene constituted 38.7 and 39.7%, respectively, of the total extracted metabolites in livers of the naphthalene-exposed rock sole and starry flounder at 24 hr, whereas the bile from both species contained primarily (〉90%) conjugates. From 24 to 168 hr, a significant (P 〈 0.05) decrease in the proportion of the dihydrodiol derivative and a concomitant increase in the proportion of conjugates—specifically, sulfate/glucoside fraction-were observed with livers of both rock sole and starry flounder. No significant change occurred in the spectrum of biliary metabolites with time. The pattern of metabolites in skin of both species was qualitatively similar to that in liver; however, the proportion of the dihydrodiol was greater in skin than in liver at 24 hr. When naphthalene (56μCi) dissolved in salmon oil was administered to starry flounder via intraperitoneal injection, the extent of biotransformation was less than after dietary exposure. Moreover, metabolites in the livers of the fish in the injection study were predominantly (76.7% of total extracted metabolites) non-conjugates at 24 hr. Once again, from 24 to 168 hr, an increase in the proportion of the sulfate/glucoside fraction and a concomitant decrease in the proportion of the dihydrodiol was observed with liver. These studies demonstrate that the extent of biotransformation of naphthalene and the types of metabolites remaining in tissues (e.g., liver) of flatfish are greatly influenced by both the mode of exposure and the time elapsed after the exposure is initiated. It appears therefore, that different exposures (e.g., in water, food, or sediment) of pleuronectids to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result in different degrees of alteration in genetic material because of variability in accumulation of non-conjugated metabolites, some of which are implicated in covalent binding with DNA in terrestrial mammals.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 11 (1977), S. 1114-1120 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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