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  • 11
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  122. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20050405-20050408; München; DOC05dgch3625 /20050615/
    Publication Date: 2005-06-16
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 12
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  PTCOG 48; Meeting of the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group; 20090928-20091003; Heidelberg; DOC09ptcog208 /20090924/
    Publication Date: 2009-09-25
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 13
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  21. Jahrestagung der Retinologischen Gesellschaft gemeinsam mit dem 8. Symposium der International Society of Ocular Trauma; 20080619-20080622; Würzburg; DOCISOTRG2008V109 /20080618/
    Publication Date: 2008-06-18
    Keywords: age-related macular degeneration ; macular translocation ; randomized clinical trial ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have reported recently that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), at a dose of 100 ng, induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in the spinal cord and results in thermal hyperalgesia in rats. This study further examines the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in i.t. IL-1β-mediated iNOS–NO cascade in spinal nociceptive signal transduction. All rats were implanted with an i.t. catheter either with or without an additional microdialysis probe. Paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat is used to assess thermal hyperalgesia. The iNOS and MAPK protein expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn were examined by western blot. The [NO] in CSF dialysates were also measured. Intrathecal IL-1β leads to a time-dependent up-regulation of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK protein expression in the spinal cord 30–240 min following IL-1β injection (i.t.). However, neither the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) nor phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK) was affected. The total amount of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK proteins were not affected following IL-1β injection. Intrathecal administration of either selective p38 MAPK, or JNK, or ERK inhibitor alone did not affect the thermal nociceptive threshold or iNOS protein expression in the spinal cord. However, pretreatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the IL-1β-induced p-p38 MAPK expression by 38–49%, and nearly completely blocked the subsequent iNOS expression (reduction by 86.6%), NO production, and thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, both ERK and JNK inhibitor pretreatments only partially (≈ 50%) inhibited the IL-1β-induced iNOS expression in the spinal cord. Our results suggest that p38 MAPK plays a pivotal role in i.t. IL-1β-induced spinal sensitization and nociceptive signal transduction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The phenotype of human prion diseases is influenced by the prion protein (PrP) genotype as determined by the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphism at codon 129, the scrapie PrP (PrPSc) type and the etiology. To gain further insight into the mechanisms of phenotype determination, we compared two-dimensional immunoblot profiles of detergent insoluble and proteinase K-resistant PrP species in a type of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJDMM2), variant CJD (vCJD) and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI). Full-length and truncated PrP forms present in the insoluble fractions were also separately analyzed. These three diseases were selected because they have the same M/M PrP genotype at codon 129 and the same type 2 PrPSc, but different etiologies, also sCJDMM2 and sFI are sporadic, whereas vCJD is acquired by infection. We observed minor differences in the PrP detergent-insoluble fractions between sCJDMM2 and vCJD, although both differ in the corresponding fractions from sFI. We detected more substantial heterogeneity between sCJDMM2 and vCJD in the two-dimensional blots of the proteinase K-resistant PrP fraction suggesting that different PrP species are selected for conversion to proteinase K-resistant PrP in sCJDMM2 and vCJD. These differences are mostly, but not exclusively, due to variations in the type of the N-linked glycans. We also show that the over-representation of the highly glycosylated forms distinctive of the proteinase K-resistant PrPSc of vCJD in one-dimensional blots is due to differences in both the amount and the natures of the glycans. Overall, these findings underline the complexity of phenotypic determination in human prion diseases.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Backgrounds and Aims:  There is relatively little data on the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). This study aims at establishing the seroprevalence of and the factors associated with H. pylori infection in Chinese CAPD patients.Methods:  All CAPD patients from a single dialysis centre were invited to participate in the study. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made serologically by the pylori DTect ELISA method. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed by the Hong Kong Index of Dyspepsia (HKID) Questionnaire. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were correlated with the H. pylori serology results.Results:  One hundred and thirty-six Chinese CAPD patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 61.8 ± 12.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.4. The mean duration of CAPD was 54 ± 42 months. Thirty-five patients (26%) have positive serology against H. pylori. Nineteen patients had a HKID score of 〉16. There was no association between H. pylori seropositivity and dyspeptic symptoms (P = 0.62). Patients who were seropositive for H. pylori were significantly older (64.9 ± 9.5 years vs 60.7 ± 13.2 years, P 〈 0.05) and had lower KT/V-values than patients who were seronegative for H. pylori (1.88 ± 0.3 vs 2.03 ± 0.3, P 〈 0.05). Patients with positive or negative H. pylori serological status did not differ in terms of demographic parameters (e.g. sex, duration of CAPD), clinical factors (e.g. bodyweight, body mass index, hepatitis status, use of H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors) and laboratory data (e.g. haemoglobin, serum urea, creatinine, albumin and parathyroid hormone levels).Conclusions:  The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Chinese CAPD patients is 26%. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity is not associated with dyspepsia. Older age and lower KT/V-values appear to be associated with the development of H. pylori seropositivity in our dialysis population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Aim: To compare bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) with epirubicin in adjuvant therapy of superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma, with respect to recurrence, progression and survival. Prognostic factors are also evaluated.Methods: Between October 1991 and September 1999, all patients harboring superficial bladder cancers (Ta or T1) with any of the relevant criteria (stage 〉 a, grade 〉 1, size 〉 1 cm, multiple or recurrent tumors), after complete transurethral resection were randomized to receive either 81 mg Connaught strain BCG or 50 mg epirubicin. Patients with recurrences were eligible to crossover, even repeatedly, until progression. Recurrence, progression and survival were analyzed in relation to initial treatment, patient characteristics and tumor characteristics.Results: There were 209 patients included in the study, 149 men and 60 women. The mean age was 69.9 years (range, 24–92). The BCG group consisted of 102 patients and the epirubicin group contained 107 patients. Final analysis was made at a median follow up of 23, 47 and 61 months for recurrence, progression and survival, respectively. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for recurrence-free, progression-free and disease-specific survival were 61%, 78% and 80%, respectively, for the BCG group. The corresponding figures were 32%, 74% and 92%, respectively, for the epirubicin group. Time to recurrence differed significantly between two treatment groups (P = 0.0004). Multiplicity increased the risk of recurrence, while grading influenced recurrence, progression and disease specific survival.Conclusions: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin prolonged time to recurrence when compared with epirubicin. Grading was shown to be a universal prognostic factor for recurrence, progression and disease specific survival.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: New neurons are produced continually in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Numerous factors modulate the rate of neuron production. One of the most important is the adrenal-derived corticoids. Raised levels of corticoids suppress proliferation of progenitor cells, while removal of corticoids by adrenalectomy reverses this. The exact mechanisms by which corticoids mediate such regulation are unknown, but corticoids are believed to act through the receptors for mineralocorticoids (MR) and glucocorticoids (GR). Previous reports regarding the roles of these receptors in regulating cell proliferation came to contrasting conclusions. Here we use both agonists and antagonists to these receptors in adult male rats to investigate and clarify their roles. Blockade of MR with spironolactone in adrenalectomised male rats implanted with a corticosterone pellet to reproduce basal levels enhanced proliferation, whereas treatment with the GR antagonist mifepristone had no effect. However, mifepristone reversed the suppressive effect of additional corticosterone in intact rats. Both aldosterone and RU362, agonists of MR and GR, respectively, reduced proliferation in adrenalectomised rats, and combined treatment with both agonists had an additional suppressive action. These results clearly show that occupancies of both receptors act in the same direction on progenitor proliferation. The existence of two receptors with different affinities for corticoids may ensure that proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus is regulated across the range of adrenal corticoid activity, including both basal and stressful contexts. Although a small proportion of newly formed cells may express GR and MR, corticosterone probably regulates proliferation indirectly through other local cells.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although viral vector-mediated delivery of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the brain has considerable potential as a neuroprotective strategy in Parkinson's disease (PD), its ability to protect complex motor functions relevant to the human condition has yet to be established. In this study, we used an operant task that assesses the selection, initiation and execution of lateralized nose-pokes in Lister Hooded rats to assess the efficacy with which complex behaviours are protected against neurotoxic lesions by prior injection of a lentiviral vector expressing GDNF. Unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) caused rats to attempt fewer trials and to make more procedural errors. Lesioned rats also developed a pronounced ipsilateral bias, with a corresponding drop in contralateral accuracy. They were also slower to react to contralateral stimuli and to execute movements bilaterally. Rats that were pre-treated 4 weeks prior to lesion surgery with an equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) vector carrying GDNF [EIAV-GDNF, injected into the striatum and above the substantia nigra (SN)] performed significantly better on all of these parameters than control rats. In addition to the operant task, EIAV-GDNF successfully rescued contralateral impairments in the corridor, staircase, stepping and cylinder tasks, and prevented drug-induced rotational asymmetry. This study confirms that GDNF can protect against 6-OHDA-induced impairments in complex as well as simple behaviours, and reinforces the use of EIAV-based vectors for the treatment of PD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary The study aimed to investigate oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) of stroke survivors on hospital discharge after rehabilitation. It was a cross-sectional study involving 43 elderly survivors of mild to moderate stroke about to be discharged from hospital after rehabilitation and a comparison group of 43 community-dwelling elderly people. The Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure, the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and an oral health transition scale were administered prior to a dental examination. Median SF-36 subscale scores were significantly different between groups (P 〈 0·05). In physical function, role-physical, role-emotional and mental health domains, stroke survivors had significantly lower scores indicating poorer health. The median GOHAI score for the stroke group was 52 and 54 for the comparison group with no significant difference between groups although more stroke survivors had difficulty speaking compared with the comparison group. About 75% of stroke survivors considered their appearance to be worse, half of them felt that speech was worse and about a third had difficulty chewing hard food compared with the pre-stroke condition (P 〈 0·05). Most participants were partially dentate with no significant difference in DMFT scores or prosthetic status between groups (P 〉 0·05). Health-related quality of life in general was significantly poorer after stroke although patients were considered physically well enough to be discharged from hospital. There was some impairment of OHR-QoL. The nature of the stroke, the hospital environment including diet, coping strategies and elderly Chinese peoples’ perception of health should be taken into account when interpreting measures of health status in stroke survivors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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