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  • Royal Society  (24)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (19)
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 43 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Several factors affecting texture of canned Blenheim apricot halves were investigated. Presence of polygalacturonase from Rhizopus arrhizus resulted in severe texture breakdown during post-canning storage. The degree of breakdown was proportional to the amount of enzyme added. Apricot halves at optimum ripeness were canned in #303 cans with 36° Brix in-going sucrose syrup preheated to 24, 60, 75 and 90°C respectively with or without added mold polygalacturonase. Addition of mold polygalacturonase to the cans resulted in rapid softening during the storage period. The samples treated with 36° Brix sucrose syrup at 24, 60, 75°C showed rapid decrease in firmness. The sample canned with 90°C syrup in the presence of mold polygalacturonase showed less softening during storage. Thermal effect on activity of polygalacturonase from the mold Rhizopus arrhizus on pectic acid was determined. Crude enzyme was more heat resistant than the purified enzyme. There was 13.5% residual polygalacturonase activity in the crude extract after heating at 100°C for 20 min.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : The effect of processing variables, including screw speed (200,300, and 400 rpm), moisture content (18, 19.5, and 21%), and four different percentages (55,70,85, and 100%) of oat flour, on the extrudate physical properties (expansion, bulk density, and texture profiles) and sensory properties were studied. Increasing the percentage of oat flour resulted in extrudates with a lower specific length, higher bulk density, lower lightness, higher redness, lower yellowness, higher hardness, and lower springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. Higher moisture content reduced expansion, except for the 100% oat flour puffs. Screw speed had no significant effect on the bulk density, specific length, and expansion ratio. Principal Component Analysis showed that decreasing moisture content and increasing screw speed resulted in increased product temperature, which was highly correlated with attributes of a more expanded product such as lightness, crispness, shininess, and an open cell structure. With a higher screw speed and a higher product temperature, corn-related flavors were more likely to develop. High correlations between physical and sensory properties were observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: During development, many neuronal populations undergo a process of normal, programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Trophic factors regulate this process, but the mechanism by which they suppress apoptosis remains unclear. In the immune system, recent studies have implicated the protooncogene bcl-2 in the lymphocyte survival response to growth factors. To determine whether a similar survival pathway exists in a neuroendocrine cell type, we have expressed bcl-2 in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line and found that it abrogates the requirement for stimulation by growth factors to survive. bcl-2 expression also substantially delays the onset of injury by the calcium ionophore A23187.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Reduced glutathione (l-γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is an endogenous tripeptide involved in the formation and maintenance of protein thiol groups as well as in various detoxification reactions. Because multiple receptor types contain thiol groups or disulfide bridges, effects of GSH treatments on μ-opioid, neurokinin-1/substance P, and kainic acid receptor binding sites were investigated and compared with those produced by dithiothreitol (DTT), a potent synthetic reducing agent. GSH inhibited binding more potently than did DTT at all three receptor types in porcine striatal membrane homogenates as well as in CHAPS-solubilized preparations of the μ and neurokinin-1 sites. GSH-induced inhibitory effects were associated with decreases in maximal binding capacity (Bmax) without significant alteration in apparent affinity (KD). Cysteine, the functional moiety of GSH, mimicked GSH effects albeit with lower potencies, whereas oxidized glutathione had no effects at similar concentrations. In CHAPS-solubilized preparations, the combination of low concentrations of GSH and guanylylimidodiphosphate markedly decreased the Bmax values of the binding of [3H][D-Ala2, Gly-ol5]enkephalin and [3H]substance P. This GSH-mediated mechanism may be important to prevent cell overstimulation by accelerating receptor uncoupling, desensitization, and/or intemalization. This is in keeping with purported roles of GSH related to the maintenance of cellular integrity.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Classification of peripheral T-cell lymphomas based on morphological criteria can present problems due to overlap in histological features amongst the subtypes. An immunohistochemical study was designed to study the follicular dendritic cell patterns in 21 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma which had been classified using the updated Kiel classification. Three patterns of distribution were observed: 1 follicular dendritic cells not detected (3 cases); 2 follicular dendritic cells restricted to remnant follicle centres (7); 3 follicular dendritic cells present as an expanded network of cells exceeding the confines of germinal centres (11). Ten out of 11 angioimmunoblastic lymphomas showed an expanded network of follicular dendritic cells. The only negative case showed features which, on review, were in keeping with a pleomorphic, medium and large cell lymphoma showing an unusual proliferation of small venules. Other than angioimmunoblastic lymphomas, only one other case showed follicular dendritic cell hyperplasia. This was an unclassified peripheral T-cell lymphoma. We conclude that follicular dendritic cell hyperplasia may be used an an aid to diagnosis of the angioimmunoblastic type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and we recommend the routine staining of these cells in typing of T-cell lymphomas to facilitate comparison between centres.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 19 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Time-dependent phototropism (TDP), sometimes called second positive curvature, occurs when the duration of phototropic stimulation with blue light (B) exceeds a few minutes. TDP was characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles raised under continuous red light (R). Subsequently, coleoptiles adapted to darkness were used to investigate the effect of R on TDP. It was found that TDP, which is induced in R-grown coleoptiles, does not occur in dark-adapted coleoptiles and that dark-adapted coleoptiles begin to show TDP after treatment with R. The TDP responsiveness became maximal 1–2 h after treatment with a R pulse and decreased during the next few hours. At least 10 min was required after a short pulse of R before the coleoptile began to respond to B for the induction of TDP. The effect of R in establishing the TDP responsiveness was totally suppressed by a pulse of far-red light given immediately after an inductive pulse of R. It is concluded that the mechanism of TDP requires for its establishment a R signal perceived by phytochrome. The TDP of R-grown and R-pretreated coleoptiles showed relationships to stimulation times and fluence rates that are similar to those reported for oat coleoptiles, except that TDP of maize showed a sharp increase in its magnitude within a narrow range of stimulation times as short as 5–10 min.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: DNA fragmentation induced by cytolytic lymphocytes in human erythromyeloid cell line K562 and murine T lymphoma cell line YAC-1 was investigated by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. Murine natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells induced DNA fragmentation in YAC-1 cells, with the fragments being approximately multiples of 180 bp. More significantly, murine NK cells can induce a similar pattern of DNA fragmentation in human K562 cells. Therefore, cytolytic lymphocytes can induce apoptosis or programmed cell death in human target cells.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Twenty-two patients with chronic pain of malignant or nonmalignant origin were given intravenous morphine by patient-controlled analgesia. A prestudy judgment was made from the characteristics of the pain as to whether it was nociceptive or neuropathic. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by a nurse-observer; adverse events were noted and plasma morphine and metabolitie concentrations measured. Three categories of opioid response were distinguished. Good responders obtained 〉 70 mm relief on the visual analogue scale, with minimal or manageable adverse events. Moderate responders obtained 〈 70 but 〉 30 mm relief with more problematic adverse events, and poor responders had 〈 30 mm relief with troublesome adverse events. This method for the study of opioid sensitivity allowed a wide dosage range to be studied. The simultaneous analgesic and adverse event measurements showed that the spectrum of observed response was wide, and response category could be judged for the majority by 4 h. In those with poor or moderate response, adverse event severity limited further dose increment. The relationship between pain characteristics and response showed that some pains judged to be neuropathic had a good response to opioid (5/13), and some pains judged to be nociceptive did not (5/14). The study suggests that the pattern of response is not as black and white as the prediction of good response from nociceptive pain and poor from neuropathic pain would suggest, although nociceptive pain was more likely than neuropathic pain to show a good response. For the moderate responders opioid titration may, in the absence of other effective treatments, be useful, but the analgesic endpoint may not be totally satisfactory. The method provides an operational definition of opioid sensitivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have reported the presence of a histamine synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), and histamine degrading enzymes, histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) and histaminase (diamine oxidase, DAO) in human nasal mucosa and the histamine content of the mucosa. In this study, we demonstrate the influences of the toluene diisocyanate (TDI) treatment on the histamine content and these enzyme activities in guinea-pigs as an animal model of respiratory hypersensitivity. Application of TDI to the nasal vestibuli induced intense nasal allergy-like and mild asthma-like responses in TDI-sensitized guinea pigs. Increases in the histamine content and HDC and HMT activities were observed in the nasal mueosa and lung of TDI-sensitized guinea pigs. No apparent changes in the histaminase activities were observed in either the nasal mucosa or the lung. These data suggest that the turnover rate of histamine is increased in the nasal mucosa and the lung of guinea pigs with respiratory hypersensitivity.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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