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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 29 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  Microfracture behaviour of composite resins containing irregular-shaped fillers was understood by filler morphology observation, fracture toughness test and acoustic emission (AE) detecting method. The fracture toughness (KIC) was obtained by using single edge notched specimens. AE, the elastic wave due to the debonding of filler from the resin matrix or the fracture of filler itself, was detected during fracture toughness test. The reasons for the different fracture toughness values of composite resin, in spite of having almost the same morphology and filler content, were understood by the results of fracture surface finding and AE releasing behaviour during fracture toughness test.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1468-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nanoemulsions have recently become increasingly important as potential vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and for the optimized dispersion of active ingredients in particular skin layers. The preparation of conventional nanoemulsions requires mainly high-pressure homogenization, which is unproductive and requires high energy due to its lower efficiency, limiting their practical applications. In order to solve these problems novel nanoemulsions were studied using a model system of pseudo-ternary water/emulsifier/paraffin oil. Nanoemulsions were prepared by stirring a mixture of the tocopherol-containing block co-polymer emulsifier PPG-20 Tocophereth-50, paraffin oil, and distilled water at the Θ-point using weight fractions of the dispersed phase (φ) of 0.31 to 0.82 and an emulsifier content of 1.0 to 9 wt.%. The emulsifying property of PPG-20 Tocophereth-50 in nanoemulsions was compared with that of the conventional emulsifiers Tocophereth-43, a mixture of polysorbate 60 and sesquioleate (3/1), and phospholipids. Also the emulsifying property of PPG-20 Tocophereth-50 in the more hydrophilic oils caprylic/capric triglyceride and octyldodecanol was compared with that in paraffin oil. The stability and morphology of the resulting nanoemulsions were studied by visual inspection, optical microscopy, particle size analysis, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In the nanoemulsion systems containing caprylic/capric triglyceride and octyldodecanol, respectively, as an oil phase PPG-20 Tocophereth-50 showed emulsification properties similar to those in paraffin oil. The conventional emulsifiers Tocophereth-43, a mixture of polysorbate 60 and sesquioleate (3/1), and phospholipids did not give nanoemulsions with high-speed stirring. The block co-polymer nonionic emulsifier PPG-20 Tocophereth-50 was found to produce stable nanoemulsions of mean droplet diameters ranging from 204 to 499 nm. The emulsification method of high-speed stirring at the Θ-point using PPG-20 Tocophereth-50 was found to be very effective for the preparation of stable nanoemulsions useful for applications in skincare cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and drugs.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Staphylococcal infection-producing superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), are presumed to play an important role of inflammatory processes in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to elucidate the apoptotic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children with AD. PBMCs from AD children were sampled and cultured with SEB stimulation. Levels of apoptosis and Fas expression were measured using flow cytometry; the soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) was also measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and the expression of FasL in PBMCs was observed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There was no difference in the initial levels of apoptosis and Fas expression in precultured PBMCs of AD patients and healthy donors. After culturing for 48 h under SEB stimulation, the apoptosis level and Fas expression were significantly upregulated in the PBMCs from AD children compared with that from the normal controls. In patients, the sFasL was significantly increased, and the expression of FasL was observed in messenger RNA of peripheral monocytes. These results suggest that the Fas/FasL system is involved in the apoptosis induced by SEB in AD, with simultaneous increases in sFasL and expression of FasL.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims:  To determine the utility of p57kip2 in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. p57kip2 protein is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) and is strongly paternally imprinted, being expressed from the maternal allele. It has been hypothesized that complete mole (CHM) with only the paternal genome would display reduced or nearly absent expression of p57kip2 compared to partial mole (PHM) having both paternal and maternal genomes.Methods and results:  The immunohistochemical expression of p57kip2 protein was investigated using paraffin-embedded tissue sections in histologically unequivocal cases of CHM (n = 51), PHM (n = 7), invasive mole (n = 1), and hydropic miscarriage (n = 2), as well as in histologically undetermined cases (n = 9). In the histologically unequivocal complete and invasive moles, expression of p57kip2 was absent except for one case in which villous cytotrophoblast covering the villous stroma was positive (51/52) as well as villous stromal cells (51/52). In contrast, it was strongly and continuously expressed in both villous cytotrophoblast and stromal cells in all cases of PHM and hydropic miscarriage. Among the nine histologically undetermined cases, five cases showing p57kip2 immunopositivity and hyperploid DNA were classified as PHMs, two cases showing p57kip2 immunonegativity and hyperploidy as CHMs, and two cases with p57kip2 immunopositivity and diploid DNA as hydropic miscarriage and diploid PHM, respectively, upon review of the histopathological findings. Intermediate trophoblast forming trophoblastic columns or anchoring villi and extravillous trophoblast at the implantation site showed variable expression of p57kip2 in all gestational conditions. Maternal decidua showed diffuse and strong p57kip2 expression, whereas syncytiotrophoblast was completely negative in all cases regardless of the diagnosis.Conclusions:  In summary, p57kip2 immunostaining results correlated well with morphological features of molar pregnancies and were helpful in determining histologically equivocal cases.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled study, we compared the efficacy of capsicum plaster (PAS) applied at the Korean hand acupuncture point for the prevention of postoperative sore throat in 150 patients scheduled to undergo abdominal hysterectomy. The K group had PAS applied at the K-A20 of both hands and placebo tape at both non-acupoints. The PAS was applied prior to induction of anaesthesia and removed 8 h postoperatively. The sore throat scores of Group K were significantly lower than those of other groups at 24 h following surgery (p = 0.00027). The prevalence of moderate to severe sore throat at 24 h was lower for Group K (0%) than for sham and placebo controls (16%[p = 0.038] and 19%[p = 0.032], respectively). There were no differences in the recovery room of the sore throat scores for all groups. We found that the PAS applied at the K-A20 was an alternative method for reducing postoperative sore throat.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared the dose–response relationships of cisatracurium, mivacurium, atracurium, vecuronium and rocuronium and examined the interactions of cisatracurium with mivacurium, atracurium, vecuronium and rocuronium in humans by isobolographic and fractional analyses. We studied 180 adult patients during nitrous oxide–fentanyl–propofol anaesthesia. Neuromuscular block was monitored using mechanomyography to detect the twitch response of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. The dose–response curves were determined by probit analysis. The calculated ED50 values and their 95% confidence intervals were 40.9 (38.1–43.7), 49.8 (47.0–52.6), 187.2 (175.1–199.3), 36.6 (34.7–38.5) and 136.4 (129.2–143.6) μg.kg−1 for cisatracurium, mivacurium, atracurium, vecuronium and rocuronium, respectively. Corresponding ED95 values were 57.6 (53.5–61.7), 91.8 (88.1–95.5), 253.1 (238.9–267.3), 52.9 (49.1–56.7) and 288.7 (276.2–301.2) μg.kg−1, respectively. The interaction between cisatracurium and mivacurium, vecuronium or rocuronium was found to be synergistic, but the interaction between cisatracurium and atracurium was found to be additive. Synergy between cisatracurium and vecuronium or rocuronium was greater than between cisatracurium and mivacurium.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Der p 2 isoallergens have been reported and the possibility of different allergenicity has also been suggested. In addition, the quantification with 2-site ELISA may be affected by the isoallergens.Objectives Two different recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) isoallergens were compared in terms of human IgE responses and the reliability of quantification of them with two-site ELISA kits which use monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as capture and detection of Der p 2.Methods Seven different Der p 2 cDNA from the cultured Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) were cloned and polymorphism in nine amino acid residues was found. Two different recombinant isoallergens (rDer p 2A and rDer p 2B) were expressed and compared to their human IgE immune responses by ELISA and the ELISA inhibition test with 23 sera of DP-allergic patients. The reliability of quantification of two different available 2-site ELISA kits, which used mAbs for capture and detection of Der p 2, was evaluated.Results The ELISA optical density of rDer p 2B-specific IgE (sIgE) was higher than that of rDer p 2A (P 〈 0.001). The ELISA inhibition curve of rDer p 2B sIgE in pool I sera (n = 5; high sIgE both to rDer p 2A and rDer p 2B) did not show any differences in the 50% inhibition concentration and maximum inhibitory percentage of rDer p 2A and rDer p 2B sIgE. However, with pool II sera (n = 5; markedly higher sIgE to rDer p 2B than rDer p 2A), the 50% inhibitory concentrations (10 µg/mL vs. 40 ng/mL) and maximum inhibitory percentage (61% vs. 99%) of rDer p 2B sIgE with the two recombinant isoallergens were quite different. rDer p 2B could be quantified with two different 2-site ELISA kits, but rDer p 2A was detected by only one kit.Conclusion We conclude that isoallergens of Der p 2 may have different IgE immune responses. Quantification of Der p 2 with 2-site ELISA kits that adopted mAbs, might be affected by the prevalent form of the isoallergens in reservoir dust.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1474-8673
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: 1 To investigate anti-inflammatory activity of organic germanium, we measured the effect of germanium-concentrated yeast on arachidonic acid release, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, histamine release, and intracellular H2O2 or hydroperoxide generation in RBL 2H3 cells, and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. 2 Germanium-concentrated yeast dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema, suggesting that germanium-concentrated yeast has anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation. 3 Germanium-concentrated yeast significantly inhibited melittin-induced arachidonic acid release and PGE2 production in RBL 2H3 cells. 4 Germanium-concentrated yeast did not affect melittin-induced histamine release and silica-induced intracellular H2O2 or hydroperoxide generation in RBL 2H3 cells. 5 These results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of germanium-concentrated yeast appears partly to be related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and PGE2 production in RBL 2H3 cells.
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