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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 61.70.r ; 78.90.+t ; 72.80.Ey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The wavelength dependence and polarization characteristics of the infrared light scattered from an undoped GaAs crystal were investigated in the 90° angle infrared light scattering configuration. The scattering is Rayleigh scattering from scatterers which are always associated with the dislocations, and they are classified into three types,S, L A , andL G scatterers, according to their polarization characteristics. TheS, L A , andL G -scatterers are thought to be small As clusters, large As precipitates and large Ga precipitates, respectively.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To determine whether the regulation of apoptosis in the testes of patients with varicocele testes was abnormal, affecting germ-cell differentiation and sperm production, we studied apoptosis in the testes of normal men and infertile men with varicocele. In all, 56 testicular biopsy specimens were collected from 28 varicocele patients. The specimens from the testes of five normal volunteers with informed consent were used as controls. In situ end-labeled cells were counted with a CAS 200 image analyzer, and an apoptotic index (AI) was calculated by division of the number of labeled cells by the total number of spermatocytes and spermatogonia in over 20 seminiferous tubules. The apoptosis was also examined by electron microscope. The mean AI was 9.67 ± 0.93% in normal testes (n = 5). In contrast, the mean AIs determined in the right and left testes of varicocele patients (n = 28) were 3.90 ± 2.28% and 3.78 ± 2.87%, respectively. The AIs recorded for the testes of varicocele patients were significantly lower than those noted for normal men (P 〈 0.05). In varicocele patients the AI obtained in the right testis was not statistically significantly different from that found in the left testis. The numbers of apoptotic cells per Sertoli cell also decreased in the testes of varicocele patients as compared with normal men (P 〈 0.01). Evaluation of all specimens, including the normal controls, revealed no significant correlation either between the AI and the sperm concentration on the seminogram or between the AI and Johnsen's mean score. There was also no relationship between the AI and the serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, testosterone, or estradiol. In conclusion, apoptosis is decreased in germ cells in the testes of infertile men with varicocele as compared with normal men.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Interferon-γ ; Interferon-α ; OK-432 ; Head and neck cancer ; Combined therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Although the drug OK-432 can induce the release of γ-interferon (IFN-γ), the serum concentrations of IFN-γ produced are very low. We studied the effects of combining OK-432 with α-interferon (IFN-α) on the endogenous production of IFN and the postoperative courses of patients with oral cavity cancers. Forty patients operated on for head and neck cancers were studied. Each patient was given an injection of OK-432 1 week after surgery. Between 10 and 14 days later, a combination of OK-432 and IFN-α was given to assess the effects of the concomitant use of IFN-α on IFN production. In 18 of the 30 patients given a large dose of IFN-α (3 or 5×106 IU/ mg protein), IFN production induced by OK-432 was enhanced. A small dose of IFN-α (7×103 IU) did not enhance the action of OK-432. OK-432 also induced the release of both endogenous IFN-γ and IFN-α, and the production of both types of IFN was enhanced by the concomitant administration of parenteral IFN-α. Next, 50 patients operated on for oral cavity cancers were given OK-432 or a combination of OK-432 and IFN-α for 4 months, and their postoperative courses were followed for 2–5 years. The clinical courses were better in the combined therapy group than in the group given OK-432 alone.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Decay-accelerating factor ; Transmembrane ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositol ; Complement ; Alternative splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Several cDNA clones encoding genetic homologues of human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) were isolated from rat testis cDNA libraries and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products. Sequence analysis revealed that rat DAF exists as two membrane forms, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and a transmembrane (TM) form. Southern blotting analysis showed that GPI- and TM-form mRNAs of rat DAF are derived from a single gene, as is the case for guinea pig, though both forms of mouse DAF mRNA are derived from two genes. Gene analysis of the C-terminal region of rat DAF indicated that both forms of mRNA are presumably generated by alternative splicing of exons which encode a GPI/3′-untranslated (3′UT) region and a TM/3′UT region in the 3′ end of the Ser/Thr-rich region. Northern blot analysis indicated that rat GPI-DAF mRNA was present in all tissues examined except for liver, while rat TM-DAF mRNA was preferentially expressed in testis. Infant rat testis barely expressed TM-DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) but highly expressed 5I2 antigen (5I2Ag, rat Crry). However, adult rat testis showed increased expression of the 1.6-kb transcript of rat GPI-DAF, TM-DAF, MCP, and the 0.7-kb transcript of CD59, with a decreased level of 5I2Ag expression. These results suggest that rat 5I2Ag/Crry may play an important role in regulating complement activation during the early stages of testis development, and that DAF, MCP, and CD59 expressed in testis may enable sperm to survive complement attack in the mucus of the female genital organ, and/or to interact with an ovum.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Feeding-stimulants ; phagostimulants ; herbivorous gastropods ; abalone ; Haliotis discus ; Turbo cornutus ; DGDG ; PC ; SQDG ; glycerolipids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Phagostimulant activity of glycerolipids such as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 6-sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), etc., have been examined using the Avicel plate method for three kinds of marine herbivorous gastropods, the abaloneHaliotis discus, the turban shellTurbo cornutus, and the topshellOmphalius pfeifferi. DGDG showed strong activity for all the test animals. SQDG was much less active than the other glycerolipids for abalone. The turban shell and the top shell responded more or less sensitively to all tested glycerolipids at doses of 10–20μg/sample zone.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Key words: Antibody—Cytokeratin 19—Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis—Pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorder.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. It has been suggested that cytokeratin 19 is expressed in regenerated bronchoepithelial cells in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, and serum cytokeratin 19 fragment is elevated in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that serum antibodies to cytokeratin 19 may be formed in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. To prove the existence of anti-cytokeratin 19 antibodies in patients' sera, human recombinant cytokeratin 19 was stained with patients' sera by a Western immunoblot. Then, we tried to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate anti-cytokeratin 19 antibody in the sera of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorders (PF-CVD). We demonstrated the anti-cytokeratin 19 antibody in patient' sera by a Western immunoblot. In patients with IPF and PF-CVD, significantly high anti-cytokeratin 19 antibody was demonstrated compared with normal volunteers, patients with chronic bronchitis, and patients with pneumonia. These results suggest that anti-cytokeratin 19 antibody may have played a role in the process of lung injury in pulmonary fibrosis.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of coccolithophores was studied in the neritic environment along the western margin of the Pacific Ocean: the Inland Sea of Seto, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Java Sea, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea and Gulf of Carpentaria. The coccolithophore community in the Red Sea was also studied for comparison with the Pacific marginal seas. With minor exceptions, the coccolithophore communities were very similar throughout the neritic areas investigated, but differed completely from the pelagic community in three aspects. Firstly, almost all neritic coccolithophores, regardless of species, suffered various degrees and forms of malformation with relation to the morphology of their coccoliths, while such malformation was rare in the pelagic population. Nitrogen deficiency may cause such malformation. Secondly, the diversity of species in these marginal seas was much lower than in the pelagic environment, although no species was found to be exclusively neritic. Emiliania huxleyi, usually ubiquitous in oceanic areas and in various neritic environments of higher latitudes, was scarce, while Gephyrocapsa oceanica dominated the flora throughout the studied areas. Finally, the horizontal and vertical distributions of the neritic populations were sporadic compared to those of the rather uniform pelagic environments.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The seasonal successions of standing crop and floral assemblage were studied for oceanic coccolithophores at 5 weather stations in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The coccolithophores were less populous during winter at the northern stations, whereas they became scarce during summer at the southern stations. The average standing crop in the surface water was quite consistent throughout all climatic regions, being a few tens of thousand cells per liter. The average standing crop at the 100 m level showed a clear trend of increasing southwards. The population at this depth was only one-tenth as large as that of the surface level at the northernmost station, whereas it was almost two-thirds as large as the surface levels at the southernmost station. Many of the major species exhibited seasonally biased occurrences. The trend was mostly repeated in consecutive years, although the magnitude of their abundances fluctuated from year to year in some case. The average species composition was obtained for the 5 weather stations at the surfacewater (surface and 20 m levels combined) and 100 m levels; Emiliania huxleyi dominated the flora at all stations. The relationship between occurrences of major species and ambient water temperature was also studied. Although some species were stenothermal, the majority exhibited eurythermal characteristics; this accounts for the high specific diversity of the coccolithophore community throughout the wide range of waters studied.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1437-7799
    Keywords: Key words Adenine ; Animal model ; Chronic renal failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. A renal failure model prepared from rats fed on an adenine diet provides valuable information about the pathomechanism of various complications associated with a persistent uremic state. To establish an animal experimental model in which the animals survive in a persistent uremic state, it is essential to settle a point of no return, i.e., an irreversible point. We investigated an irreversible point using the rat renal failure model induced by adenine treatment. Methods. Rats were fed on a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 2, 4, or 6 weeks, and they were then fed an adenine-free diet for an additional 4 weeks to evaluate the degree of recovery from renal dysfunction. Results. The rats fed on the adenine diet for 2 weeks showed a decrease in mean serum creatinine(s-Cr) from 1.8 mg/dl before to 0.7 mg/dl after the observation period, with mild anemia. The rats fed on the adenine diet for 4 weeks showed persistent renal dysfunction. Although the mean s-Cr decreased from 2.7 to 2.0 mg/dl, it continued to be higher than the normal range, and the anemia worsened. In the rats fed on the adenine diet for 6 weeks, the mean s-Cr increased from 3.4 to 3.6 mg/dl. Hypoproteinemia was also observed and some animals died. Conclusion. Based on the above results, it was concluded that to prepare a model of chronic renal failure in rats compatible to chronic renal failure seen clinically, the administration of a 0.75% adenine diet for 4 weeks is most appropriate.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1437-7799
    Keywords: Key words Vancomycin ; Multiple organ failure ; Continuous hemodiafiltration ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Some pharmacokinetic data for vancomycin (VCM) during continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration have been reported, but reports on the effect of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), which is more commonly performed in patients with multiple organ failure (MOF), on VCM pharmacokinetics are scanty. Method. We selected five patients with MOF with serious infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who needed treatment with VCM during CVVHDF. Blood flow rate was 80 ml/min, and dialysis fluid flow rate and filtration flow rate were both 0.5 l/h. A hemofilter made of polysulfon was used. After administration of 0.5–1.0 g of VCM, serial samples of blood and dialysate/filtrate outflow were obtained during CVVHDF. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a standard model-independent method. Results. Mean ± SE values for the pharmacokinetic parameters of VCM were: elimination rate constant, 0.0369 ± 0.0124/h; systemic clearance, 25.6 ± 5.0 ml/min; CVVHDF clearance, 15.9 ± 3.4 ml/min; non-CVVHDF clearance, 9.6 ± 8.4 ml/min; and distribution volume, 51.1 ± 21.6 l. The harmonic mean of half-life was 18.9 h. Conclusion. The systemic clearance of VCM during CVVHDF was relatively higher than anticipated. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in the present study will be useful to optimize the dose schedule of VCM in patients with MOF being treated with CVVHDF.
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