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  • 11
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; validation ; DNA ; SUFFICIENT ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; BRCA1 ; MUTATION ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; LENGTH ; PHENOTYPE ; REPLICATION ; CARRIERS ; FUTURE ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; AUSTRALIA ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; BRCA2 ; VARIANT ; PENETRANCE ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; CARRIER ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; POWER ; SIZE ; mammographic density ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; RAD51 ; ENGLAND ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; BRCA2 MUTATION ; AIB1 GENE ; association study ; POLYGLUTAMINE REPEAT ; RECEPTOR CAG REPEAT
    Abstract: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations exhibit variable penetrance that is likely to be accounted for, in part, by other genetic factors among carriers. However, studies aimed at identifying these factors have been limited in size and statistical power, and have yet to identify any convincingly validated modifiers of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 phenotype. To generate sufficient statistical power to identify modifier genes, the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 ( CIMBA) has been established. CIMBA contains about 30 affiliated groups who together have collected DNA and clinical data from approximately 10,000 BRCA1 and 5,000 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Initial efforts by CIMBA to identify modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have focused on validation of common genetic variants previously associated with risk in smaller studies of carriers or unselected breast cancers. Future studies will involve replication of findings from pathway-based and genome-wide association studies in both unselected and familial breast cancer. The identification of genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers will lead to an improved understanding of breast cancer and may prove useful for the determination of individualized risk of cancer amongst carriers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17466083
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  • 12
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; primary ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; PATTERNS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; SNP ; DATABASE ; Jun ; POPULATIONS ; familial risk ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; SINGLE ; AGGREGATION ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ALLELES ; LEVEL ; familial aggregation ; single-nucleotide ; UNIT ; ENGLAND ; LOCI ; CHEK2-ASTERISK-1100DELC ; breast cancer susceptibility ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR-2
    Abstract: Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r(2) 〉 0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P 〈 10(-7)). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P 〈 0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17529967
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  • 13
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; RISK ; RISKS ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; REDUCED RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; CANCER RISKS ; REPLICATION ; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; HETEROGENEITY ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; BRCA2 ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; analysis ; USA ; CANDIDATE ; CANCER-RISK ; COMMON VARIANT ; CASP8 GENE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; CONSORTIUM ; NUCLEOTIDE
    Abstract: The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712 5' flanking CDKN2A, rs523349 in the 3' UTR of SRD5A2, D302H (rs1045485) in CASP8 and L10P (rs1982073) in TGFB1. Fourteen studies genotyped 4,624 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 8,113 controls of white non-Hispanic origin. A marginally significant association was found for RB1 when all studies were included [ordinal odds ratio (OR) 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.00) p = 0.041 and dominant OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.98) p = 0.025]; when the studies that originally suggested an association were excluded, the result was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded [ordinal OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) p = 0.027; dominant OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.24) p = 0.03]. The other 5 SNPs in BRCA2, CDKN2A, SRD5A2, CASP8 and TGFB1 showed no association with ovarian cancer risk; given the large sample size, these results can also be considered to be informative. These null results for SNPs identified from relatively large initial studies shows the importance of replicating associations by a consortium approach. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18431743
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  • 14
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; genetics ; familial risk ; USA ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; Genetic ; 33 ; COMMON VARIANTS ; Genome-wide association studies
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, but these explain only a small fraction of the familial risk of the disease. Five of these loci were identified through a two-stage GWAS involving 390 familial cases and 364 controls in the first stage, and 3,990 cases and 3,916 controls in the second stage(1). To identify additional loci, we tested over 800 promising associations from this GWAS in a further two stages involving 37,012 cases and 40,069 controls from 33 studies in the CGEMS collaboration and Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We found strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19330027
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  • 15
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; HISTORY ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; FAMILY ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; FREQUENCIES ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; early detection ; IDENTIFICATION ; BRCA1 ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; SNP ; MUTATIONS ; POPULATIONS ; genetic polymorphism ; case-control studies ; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; case-control study ; review ; FAMILIES ; development ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; USA ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCERS ; EXTENT ; FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISM ; Genetic ; PROPORTION ; FEDERATION ; INTERNATIONAL HAPMAP PROJECT ; INVASIVE OVARIAN ; PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR GENE
    Abstract: The value of identifying women with an inherited predisposition to epithelial ovarian cancer has become readily apparent with the identification of the BRCA1, and BRCA2 genes. Women who inherit a deleterious mutation in either of these genes have a very high lifetime risk of ovarian cancer (10-60%) and to some extent, increased risks of fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer. These highly lethal cancers are almost completely prevented by prophylactic salpingoophorectomy. BRCA1/2 mutation testing has become the accepted standard of care in families with a strong history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. This approach has the potential to reduce ovarian cancer mortality by about 10%. Although the ability to perform genetic testing for BRCA1 and 2 represents a significant clinical advance, the frequency of mutations in these high penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility genes is low in most populations. There is evidence to suggest that ovarian cancer susceptibility might be affected by common low penetrance genetic polymorphisms like it was shown for several common disorders like diabetes or breast cancer. Although such polymorphisms would increase risk to a lesser degree, they could contribute to the development of a greater proportion of ovarian cancers by virtue of their higher frequencies in the population. It has been shown that the most powerful approach to studying low penetrance genes is an association study rather than a linkage study design. This review describes the efforts that have been made in this field by individual case-control studies and through multi-center collaborations as part of international consortia such as the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19383379
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  • 16
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; MARKER ; REDUCTION ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; SNP ; MARKERS ; cancer risk ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; PROGENITOR CELLS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; PROJECT ; MORPHOGENESIS ; ER ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; SINGLE ; case control study ; case-control study ; BRCA2 ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; VARIANT ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; ESTROGEN ; biomarker ; estrogen receptor ; pooled analysis ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; CONSORTIUM ; tumor suppressor ; 3 ; Genetic ; TRANSCRIPTION-FACTOR ; BRCA1 and BRCA2 ; GATA3 ; LUMINAL CELL FATE
    Abstract: GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (P (trend) = 0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [Garcia-Closas M et al. (2007) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2269-2275]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (ORper-allele = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (ORper-allele = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RRper-allele = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RRper-allele = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19082709
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  • 17
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; MUTATION ; cancer risk ; GENOTYPES ; BETA ; TGF-BETA-1 ; BRCA2 ; VARIANT ; secretion ; TGF-BETA ; risk modifiers ; GENOTYPE ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; CONSORTIUM ; Hereditary cancer ; TRANSFORMING-GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA-1 GENE
    Abstract: Background The transforming growth factor beta-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-beta, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population. Methods To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92-1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81-1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18523885
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  • 18
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; BREAST ; HEALTH ; MUTATIONS ; ENVELOPE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; SYNE-1 ; CANDIDATE SNPS ; single nucleotide
    Abstract: We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) region in three population-based case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in the United States, comprising a total of 1,128 and 1,866 non-Hispanic white invasive cases and controls, respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1. (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.44, P = 0.0061. rs2295190 is a nonsynonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope I (SYNE1), which is involved in nuclear organization and structural integrity, function of the Golgi apparatus, and cytokinesis. An isoform encoded by SYNE1 has been reported to be down-regulated in ovarian and other cancers. rs2295190 was genotyped in an additional 12 Studies through the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, with 5,279 invasive epithelial cases and 7,450 controls. The per-T-allele OR for this 12-study set was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.17; P = 0.017). Results for the serous subtype in the 15 combined studies were similar to those overall (n = 3,545; OR, 1.09; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.025), and our findings were strongest for the mucinous subtype (n = 447; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.58; P = 0.002). No association was observed for the endometrioid Subtype. In an additional analysis of 1,459 borderline ovarian cancer cases and 7,370 controls, rs2295190 was not associated with risk. These data provide suggestive evidence that the rs2295190 T allele, or another allele in linkage disequilibrium with it, may be associated with increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 190); 245-50. (C) 2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20056644
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  • 19
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; RISK ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; CONSORTIUM ; MULTIPLE
    Abstract: Background: We previously reported an association between rs2660753, a prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC; OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.4, P-trend = 0.01) that showed a stronger association with the serous histological subtype (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5, P-trend = 0.003). Methods: We sought to replicate this association in 12 other studies comprising 4,482 cases and 6,894 controls of white non-Hispanic ancestry in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Results: No evidence for an association with all cancers or serous cancers was observed in a combined analysis of data from the replication studies (all: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.1, P-trend = 0.61; serous: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.1, P-trend = 0.85) or from the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies (all: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1, P-trend = 0.28; serous: OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2, P-trend = 0.11). There was no evidence for statistical heterogeneity in ORs across the studies. Conclusions: Although rs2660753 is a strong prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, the association with another hormonally related cancer, invasive EOC, is not supported by this replication study. Impact: Our findings, based on a larger sample size, emphasize the importance of replicating potentially promising genetic risk associations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21415361
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  • 20
    Keywords: POPULATION ; GENOME ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; BREAST-CANCER ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; SIGNATURES ; POSITIVE SELECTION ; JEWS ; TAY-SACHS DISEASE
    Abstract: Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21597964
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