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  • 11
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: mechanical loading ; gene expression ; osteopontin ; myeloperoxidase ; rats ; differential display ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The skeleton has the ability to alter its mass, geometry, and strength in response to mechanical stress. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to analyze gene expression in endocortical bone of mature female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, approximately 8 months old, received either a sham or bending load using a four-point loading apparatus on the right tibia. RNA was collected at 1 h and 24 h after load was applied, reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and used in DDRT-PCR. Parallel display of samples from sham and loaded bones on a sequencing gel showed several regulated bands. Further analysis of seven of these bands allowed us to isolate two genes that are regulated in response to a loading stimulus. Nucleotide analysis showed that one of the differentially expressed bands shares 99% sequence identity with rat osteopontin (OPN), a noncollagenous bone matrix protein. Northern blot analysis confirms that OPN mRNA expression is increased by nearly 4-fold, at 6 h and 24 h after loading. The second band shares 90% homology with mouse myeloperoxidase (MPO), a bactericidal enzyme found primarily in neutrophils and monocytes. Semiquantitative PCR confirms that MPO expression is decreased 4- to 10-fold, at 1 h and 24 h after loading. Tissue distribution analysis confirmed MPO expression in bone but not in other tissues examined. In vitro analysis showed that MPO expression was not detectable in total RNA from UMR 106 osteoblastic cells or in confluent primary cultures of osteoblasts derived from either rat primary spongiosa or diaphyseal marrow. Database analysis suggests that MPO is expressed by osteocytes. These findings reinforce the association of OPN expression to bone turnover and describes for the first time, decreased expression of MPO during load-induced bone formation. These results suggest a role for both OPN and MPO expression in bone cell function. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:355-365, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: autoantigens ; spermatogenesis ; rabbit ; antigens ; membrane proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Autoantigens that appear during spermatogenesis in the rabbit were identified using immunoadsorbent chromatography and SDS-PAGE. To identify cell-surface proteins, samples of freshly isolated, staged cells were labeled by the lactoperoxidase or Iodo-Gen iodination procedure and run on SDS-PAGE. Autoradiograms of the stained, dried gels were prepared. By correlating the band patterns in the SDS gels of immunocolumn and surface-labeled samples with the band patterns in the autoradiograms, it was possible to show when the autoantigenic proteins appeared on the cell surface. To further support the identification of membrane autoantigens, surface-labeled, staged cell samples were lysed in Triton X-100 and immunoprecipitated with antitestis cell autoantisera.Three types of autoantigens have been identified: (1) late class antigens that are present only on late spermatids and epididymal spermatozoa, but are intracellular in early stages, (2) early class antigens which occur on the surface of pachytene spermatocytes and are present throughout subsequent stages of development, and (3) early class, transient antigens, which appear on spermatogenic cells but are not present on epididymal spermatozoa.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 13 (1991), S. 253-258 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 13 (1991), S. 429-437 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The tropomyosins are a family of actin filament binding proteins. In multicellular animals, they exhibit extensive cell type specific isoform diversity. In this essay we discuss the genetic mechanisms by which this diversity is generated and its possible significance to cellular function.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of cAMP and cGMP in triggering proliferation of rat myoblasts was evaluated by: (1) measuring effects of mitogens on intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels, and (2) observing effects of agents which altered cyclic nucleotide levels on cell proliferation. Multiplication stimulating activity (MSA, 1 μg/ml), a member of the somatomedin family, stimulated cell proliferation after 48 hr. It had little effect on cellular cyclic nucleotide levels, measured by radioimmunoassay. Horse serum (HS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulated cell proliferation approximately equally. Neither affected cAMP levels; FBS reduced cGMP to 33% of control values, but HS had no effect. Thus, there was no simple correlation between mitogenic action and cyclic nucleotide levels at any time from 5 min to 24 hr after addition of a purified mitogen or serum. Furthermore, agents which caused substantial changes in cyclic nucleotide levels had no effect on cell proliferation. Prostaglandin E1 (5 μM) elevated cAMP 440% without affecting cGMP levels or cell growth. A potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (MIX, 0.1 mM), when added alone or in the presence of MSA, HS, or FBS, elevated cAMP 200% and cGMP 167%, but it had little effect on their mitogenic action. Lastly, a purified mitogen such as MSA, unlike serum, must be present for extended periods of time in order to stimulate cell proliferation. This makes it unlikely that a trigger mechanism functions in initiating cell division. We conclude that neither cAMP nor cGMP appear to be second messengers for the mitogenic action of MSA or serum on muscle cells.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The influence of age and food restriction on kidney protein synthesis was studied in Fischer F344 rats. The rate of total protein synthesis by suspensions of kiney cells declined 60% between 4 and 31 months of age. The rate of protein synthesis by kidney cells isolated from 19-month old rats fed a restricted diet (60% of diet consumed by rats fed ad libitum) was 45% higher than the rate of protein synthesis by kidney cells isolated from 19-month old rats fed ad libitum. The excretion of protein in the urine was measured to assess the effect of the age related decline in protein synthesis on kidney function. A dramatic increase in proteinuria was observed with increasing age, and rats fed the restricted diet excreted significantly less protein in the urine than rats fed ad libitum.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts (RSVCEF) secrete elevated levels of a 70 kDa progelatinase, an avian form of the 72 kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Affinity-purified preparations of secreted 70 kDa progelatinase are composed of two distinct populations of zymogen: a 70 kDa progelatinase tightly complexed with an avian form of TIMP-2 and a native 70 kDa progelatinase free of any detectable TIMP-2. These two forms of the progelatinase can be separated by Mono Q FPLC in the absence of denaturing agents. The homogeneity of the two separated forms is demonstrated by both SDS-PAGE and nondenaturing, native gel electrophoresis. The purified TIMP-free 70 kDa progelatinase is stable in aqueous conditions and does not spontaneously autoactivate. Treatment of the TIMP-free progelatinase with the organomercurial, p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA), results in rapid (5-60 minutes) autolytic conversion of the 70 kDa progelatinase to 67 kDa, 62 kDa and lower molecular weight forms of the enzyme. APMA treatment of the TIMP-free progelatinase yields a preparation that is enzymatically active with a high specific activity towards a peptide substrate. Identical treatment of TIMP-complexed progelatinase with APMA results in a significantly slower conversion process in which the 70 kDa progelatinase is only 50% converted after 6-24 hours and the specific enzyme activity of the preparation is 8 to 18-fold lower. Purified avian TIMP-2 added to the TIMP-free progelatinase forms a complex with the progelatinase and prevents the rapid autolytic conversion induced by APMA. Comparative analysis of parallel cultures of transformed RSVCEF and normal CEF demonstrates that the transformed cultures contain threefold higher levels of the TIMP-free progelatinase than the normal CEF cultures which produce predominantly TIMP-complexed progelatinase. The presence in transformed cultures of elevated levels of a more readily activated TIMP-free progelatinase, the suppression of its rapid activation by TIMP-2, and the potential effect of the altered balance between TIMP-free and TIMP-complexed 70 kDa progelatinase on the invasive, malignant phenotype, are discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Eu-, hypo- and hyper-thyroid rats were studied 12 days postpartum. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering propylthiouracil (PTU) via the mother's drinking water beteen late gestation and throughout lactation. This procedure effectively blocked the normal early postnatal surge of T3 and T4. In contrast, hyperthyroidism was induced in the young pups by daily injections of T4 from day 3 postpartum. The effects of these experimental manipulations of thyroid status on the rates of protein turnover and growth of the liver, kidney, and diaphragm were studied and compared with measurements made on appropriate euthyroid control tissues. Tissue rates of protein synthesis were decreased in response to hypothyroidism with consequent growth retardation of all three tissues and the whole animal. In contrast, the three body tissues responded very differently to the induction of hyperthyroidism. Hepatic rates of protein synthesis and growth were completely unaffected by thyroid excess. The response of the diaphragm was essentially the reverse of that seen with hypothyroidism, i.e., the enhanced rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation leading to muscle hypertrophy. The rates of protein turnover in the kidney were also increased, but unlike the diaphragm the net result was renal atrophy. Clearly, thyroid hormones influence the normal rapid growth of the neonate and its individual tissues. However, beyond a certain concentration the threshold of responsiveness to these hormones seems to vary between individual tissues. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: It has been proposed that proteases are important in endothelial cell behavior. We examined the contribution of the gelatinase/type IV collagenase system in an in vitro model of endothelial differentiation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells rapidly align and form networks of tubes when cultured on a basement membrane preparation, Matrigel. Zymograms of culture supernates demonstrate a 72-kD and a 92-kD gelatinase activity; the cells produce most of the 72-kD gelatinase, whereas the 92-kD activity is derived entirely from the Matrigel. Addition of antibodies against type IV gelatinase/collagenase decreases the area of the tube network. Both tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, similarly decrease tube formation when added to cultures. Conversely, exogenous recombinant 72-kD gelatinase increases tube-forming activity. The effects of the anti-gelatinase antibodies and the TIMPs are not additive. Inhibition by either antibodies or TIMPs is greatest when they are added at culture initiation, suggesting that the protease activity is important in the early steps of morphogenesis. However, culture of the cells on Matrigel does not increase early expression of mRNA for the 72-kD gelatinase. Expression of message for the enzyme actually decreases during the course of the assay, while transcription of mRNA for TIMPs increases, further supporting the concept that collagenases facilitate an early event in tube formation. These data demonstrate that gelatinase/type IV collagenase activity is important in endothelial cell morphogenesis on Matrigel, and suggest a role for collagenases in formation of new capillaries in vivo. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human α thrombin acts as a mitogen for cultures of resting chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) in serum free medium. The use of 125I-labeled thrombin shows that thrombin specifically binds to CEF and that after a lag of approximately 30 to 60 minutes it can not be removed by subsequent exposure to trypsin. The entry of 125I thrombin into the trypsin-insensitive domain is not inhibited to any great extent by excess unlabelled thrombin. The cell-associated thrombin retains its native molecular weight and its catalytic activity toward synthetic amide substrates. It appears to be located in the crude nuclear fraction of homogenized CEF cells. The association of thrombin with CEF is specific, since the non-mitogenic serine protease chymotrypsin is internalized to a much lesser extent than thrombin. The data are discussed in terms of a possible intracellular site for thrombin's mitogenic action.
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