Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
The role of cAMP and cGMP in triggering proliferation of rat myoblasts was evaluated by: (1) measuring effects of mitogens on intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels, and (2) observing effects of agents which altered cyclic nucleotide levels on cell proliferation. Multiplication stimulating activity (MSA, 1 μg/ml), a member of the somatomedin family, stimulated cell proliferation after 48 hr. It had little effect on cellular cyclic nucleotide levels, measured by radioimmunoassay. Horse serum (HS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulated cell proliferation approximately equally. Neither affected cAMP levels; FBS reduced cGMP to 33% of control values, but HS had no effect. Thus, there was no simple correlation between mitogenic action and cyclic nucleotide levels at any time from 5 min to 24 hr after addition of a purified mitogen or serum. Furthermore, agents which caused substantial changes in cyclic nucleotide levels had no effect on cell proliferation. Prostaglandin E1 (5 μM) elevated cAMP 440% without affecting cGMP levels or cell growth. A potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (MIX, 0.1 mM), when added alone or in the presence of MSA, HS, or FBS, elevated cAMP 200% and cGMP 167%, but it had little effect on their mitogenic action. Lastly, a purified mitogen such as MSA, unlike serum, must be present for extended periods of time in order to stimulate cell proliferation. This makes it unlikely that a trigger mechanism functions in initiating cell division. We conclude that neither cAMP nor cGMP appear to be second messengers for the mitogenic action of MSA or serum on muscle cells.
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