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  • 11
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ontogenetic sequence of cranial osteogenesis through adulthood is described in samples of newts from completely metamorphosing and partially neotenic populations. Cranial ossification proceeds in the same sequence in both samples. Seven stages of cranial development are described on the basis of conspicuous events that occur during ontogeny. These include four larval stages, metamorphs, efts, and adults. Neotenic adults have skulls that are metamorphosed completely and indistinguishable from the skulls of non-neotenic adults. Neoteny in these newts does not involve the skull and is limited to the postmetamorphic retention of some gill structures and, thus, is termed “limited neoteny.” The evolution of limited neoteny in newts as a correlated response to the inhibition of land-drive behavior is discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The projectile tongue of caudate amphibians has been studied from many perspectives, yet a quantitative kinetic model of tongue function has not yet been presented for generalized (nonplethodontid) terrestrial salamanders. The purposes of this paper are to describe quantitatively the kinnematics of the feeding mechanism and to present a kinetic model for the function of the tongue in the ambystomatid salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Six kinematic variables were quantified from high-speed films of adult A. tigrinum feeding on land and in the water. Tongue protrusion reaches its maximum during peak gape, while peak tongue height is reached earlier, 15 ms after the mouth starts to open. Tongue kinematics change considerably during feeding in the water, and the tongue is not protruded past the plane of the gape. Electrical stimulation of the major tongue muscles showed that tongue projection in A. tigrinum is the combined result of activity in four muscles: the geniohyoideus, Subarcualis rectus 1, intermandibularis posterior, and interhyoideus. Stimulation of the Subarcualis rectus 1 alone does not cause tongue projection. The kinetic model produced from the kinematic and stimulation data involves both a dorsal vector (the resultant of the Subarcualis rectus 1, intermandibularis posterior, and interhyoideus) and a ventral vector (the geniohyoideus muscle), which sum to produce a resultant anterior vector that directs tongue motion out of the mouth and toward the prey. This model generates numerous testable predictions about tongue function and provides a mechanistic basis for the hypothesis that tongue projection in salamanders evolved from primitive intraoral manipulative action of the hyobranchial apparatus.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 209 (1991), S. 83-96 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An analysis of hind limb skeletal elements of non-avian theropods and ground-dwelling birds was performed to reveal patterns of change in shape and proportion with size. When femora of equal length are compared, birds exhibit a significantly larger midshaft diameter than non-avian theropods. As total limb length increases, avian femora become relatively shorter (negative allometry), while those of non-avian theropods become relatively longer (positive allometry). Avian femoral/tibiotarsal ratios are all below 0.8 and decrease with limb size, whereas ratios of non-avian theropods are well above 0.8 and tend to increase with limb size. In addition, avian femora exhibit a unique diameter/length relationship not seen in other theropod hind limb bones.Several studies have shown that within the avian limb, the short, robust femur resists bending to a far greater degree than the relatively longer, slimmer tibiotarsus. This is to be expected, as analyses of running birds show that the femur is oriented relatively perpendicular to the ground reaction force throughout the stride, which would subject it to high bending moments. When compared to birds, non-avian theropods have relatively long, slender femora that do not seem to be built to withstand the forces associated with such an orientation. Reconstructing all non-avian theropods in avian-like poses (subhorizontal femur, knee well flexed) with avian locomotor kinematics (relatively little hip extension at most speeds) ignores major differences in scaling between these groups of organisms.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: desmosome ; immunological analysis ; immunoblotting ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A panel of monoclonal antibodies and conventional antisera directed against desmosomal proteins from bovine muzzle epidermis was used Io identify immunologically related proteins from two other bovine stratified squamous epithelia, cornea and esophagus. Desmosome-enriched tissue fractions were prepared from epidermis, cornea, and esophagus. These tissue extracts were electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels, blotted onto nitrocellulose paper, and labeled using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Labeling with the conventional antisera demonstrates that each of the previously characterized epidermal desmosomal proteins or protein families has an immunologically cross-reacting counterpart in cornea and esophagus. However, chemical differences between homologous desmosomal proteins in these three tissues have also been detected. The corresponding proteins in the different tissues have similar but not always identical apparent molecular weights. Moreover, tissue-restricted antigenic determinants were detected in two of the desmosomal protein families using four monoclonal antibodies, each of which recognizes a distinct antigenic determinant.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mouse liver cells in primary culture were evaluated by highresolution light microscopy (HRLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cells after 2 hours of culture in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum were spherical in shape, and were either individual or in small clusters of up to ten cells. Following 1 day in culture, hepatocytes were flattened and usually found in groups. Bile canaliculus-like structures were apparent between hepatocytes. Tight junctions and desmosomes were also present along adjacent plasma membranes. Autophagic vacuoles were seen within the cytoplasm. After 2 days in culture, hepatocytes appeared more elongated and flattened than in earlier sampling periods. Both autophagic and clear vacuoles were seen in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria were present in a variety of shapes and sizes. Small bundles of microfilaments were frequently seen in the basal region of cross-sectioned cells. From the fourth until the eighth day in culture, hepatocytes displayed further progression of the morphologic changes seen after 2 days. Nuclear elongation and the projection of cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions into the nucleus were also evident after 4 days. Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were eventually observed in all hepatocytes by the eight day of culture. DNA synthesis in the cells during culture was investigated by autoradiography. The percentage of S-phase labeled cells was 0.1% after 1 day of culture. The labeling index increased to 1.02%, 3.14%, and 5.88% after 2, 4, and 6 days of culture, respectively. Synthesis of albumin by the liver cells was also detectable during the first 8 days of primary culture. A gradual drop in albumin synthesis was noted with increased time in culture. The percentage of hepatocytes that histochemically stained for gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) progressively increased from 0.01% of the cells after 2 hours culture to 3.14% of the cells after 8 days of culture.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Comparison of metamorphosis of skull and hyobranchial system in two species of neotenic salamanders reveals two different types of neoteny. Ambystoma talpoideum is completely neotenic owing to delayed metamorphosis. Notophthalmus viridescens exhibits limited neoteny as a result of incomplete metamorphosis. Morphological details of neoteny are compared to life history in both species in order to discuss the ecological morphology of the two neotenic strategies. Comparisons to Taricha granulosa, Triturus vulgaris, and Ambystoma gracile indicate that these two strategies are widely employed and may represent familial patterns.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: While ontogenetic analyses of skull development have contributed to our understanding of phylogenetic patterns in vertebrates, there are few studies of taxa that undergo a relatively discrete and rapid change in morphology during development (metamorphosis). Morphological changes occurring in the head at metamorphosis in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) were quantified by a morphometric analysis of cranial osteology and myology to document patterns of change during metamorphosis. We employed a cross-sectional analysis using a sample of larvae just prior to metamorphosis and a sample of transformed individuals just after metamorphosis, as well as larvae undergoing metamorphosis. There were no differences in external size of the head among the larval and transformed samples. The hyobranchial apparatus showed many dramatic changes at metamorphosis, including shortening of ceratobranchial 1 and the basibranchial. The subarcualis rectus muscle increased greatly in length at metamorphosis, as did hypobranchial length and internasal distance. A truss analysis of dorsal skull shape showed that at metamorphosis the snout becomes wider, the maxillary and squamosal triangles rotate posteromedially, and the neurocranium shortens (while maintaining its width), resulting in an overall decrease in skull length at metamorphosis.These morphometric differences are interpreted in light of recent data on the functional morphology of feeding in salamanders. Morphological reorganization of the hyobranchial apparatus and shape changes in the skull are related to the acquisition of a novel terrestrial feeding mode (tongue projection) at metamorphosis. Metamorphic changes (both internal and external) that can be used to judge metamorphic condition are discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 195 (1988), S. 237-245 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The homology of branchial arch segments in salamanders has been a matter of controversy since the last century. Many investigators term the most medial paired elements of salamander branchial arches “ceratobranchials” and the next distal paired elements “epibranchials.” This suggests that the first two segmental elements of the salamander branchial arch are not homologous with elements occupying the same position in ray-finned fishes, Latimeria, “rhipidistians,” and lungfishes, in which these bones are called hypobranchials and ceratobranchials, respectively. Three lines of evidence suggest that it is more parsimonious to interpret urodele branchial arch segments as being homologous with those of other vertebrate clades-(1) comparative osteology, (2) comparative myology, and (3) the discovery of cartilaginous structures forming a third segmental unit that we interpret as atavistic epibranchials of the branchial arch in one population of the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens. These structures possess all the defining attributes of atavisms, and illustrate the special role that atavistic features play in resolving questions of homology recognition.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: IGF-I receptor ; T-cells ; OKT-3 ; PHA ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The biological effects of the IGFs are mediated through interaction with specific cell surface receptors. It has been previously reported that mitogenic activation of T-lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is associated with increased IGF-I receptor content. However, the mechanisms which regulate IGF-I receptor expression during T-lymphocyte activation are unknown. To explore further the regulation of IGF-I receptor expression in T-cells, we investigated IGF-I receptor content and mRNA abundance in T-lymphocytes after stimulation either by PHA or OKT-3, the latter being a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD-3 antigen of the T-cell receptor IGF-I binding in T-cells demonstrated increased IGF-I receptor content after stimulation by both PHA and OKT-3. Peak binding was induced after 72 h of treatment with PHA and 48 h of treatment with OKT-3. Affinity cross-linking of 125I-IGF-I to T-cell membranes demonstrated a single ∼ 130 kDa band which was increased after treatment with PHA or OKT-3. This band was inhibited by the addition of α-IR3, a monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor. Both PHA and OKT-3 increased IGF-I receptor mRNA abundance with peak increases at 20 h and 60 h, respectively. Parallel increases in IGF-I receptor and β-actin mRNA abundance were observed, consistent with previous studies demonstrating increased actin gene expression after T-cell activation. Thus, the increase in IGF-I receptor mRNA abundance markedly preceded the increase in IGF-I receptor content after PHA stimulation, but the increase in IGF-I receptor mRNA abundance followed the increase in IGF-I receptor content after OKT-3. These studies suggest, therefore, that IGF-I receptor content in both of these activated cells is not regulated primarily at the level of steady state mRNA.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 210 (1991), S. 33-44 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The subarcualis rectus I muscle (SAR) in the feeding mechanism of four tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) was removed early in ontogeny and these individuals were allowed to complete metamorphosis. This procedure resulted in postmetamorphic tiger salamanders which differed from control individuals in the size (and thus force generating capacity) of the SAR muscle. The experimental manipulation of muscle ontogeny allowed a test of previous hypotheses of SAR function in postmetamorphic individuals. Multivariate analysis of variance for kinematic variables measured from high-speed video records of feeding revealed that experimentally modified tiger salamanders did not protract the hyobranchial apparatus or project the tongue from the mouth during feeding. Removal of the SAR muscle resulted in significantly reduced hyobranchial elevation in the buccal cavity and reduced maximum tongue projection distance.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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