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  • 11
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; AGENTS ; Germany ; THERAPY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; transcription ; TIME ; PATIENT ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; ALPHA ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACID ; hormone ; gene expression ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; HIGH-RISK ; DNA-DAMAGE ; EXCHANGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; TAMOXIFEN ; signaling ; CBP ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; ESTROGEN ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; NUCLEAR RECEPTORS ; estrogen receptor ; p300 ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; OVARIAN ; MUTATION ANALYSIS ; genotype combination ; GAMMA COACTIVATOR ; PREINVASIVE MAMMARY-TUMORS ; STEROID-HORMONE RECEPTORS
    Abstract: The mitogen effect of the ovarian steroid estrogen is a strong risk factor for breast cancer development. This effect is mainly mediated by the estrogen receptor alpha, a hormone inducible transcription factor, which activates gene expression through recruiting multiple coactivators, such as PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and EP300. We tested the hypothesis that non-conservative, putative functional amino acid exchanges in PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and EP300 act as low-penetrance familial breast cancer risk factors. The analysis of 816 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer patients and 1012 controls revealed an association of the PPARGC1A Thr612Met polymorphism with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.81, P = 0.049), high-risk familial breast cancer (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12, P = 0.017) and bilateral familial breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.24-4.28, P = 0.009). Logistic regression analyses of the PPARGC1B Ala203Pro variant showed an increased familial breast cancer risk of heterozygous and homozygous variant allele carriers (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.91, P = 0.002). The genotype-combination analysis of the associated PPARGC1A Thr612Met variant and the associated PPARGC1B Ala203Pro variant suggests an allele dose-dependent breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.0004). Our results indicate for the first time the importance of inherited variants in the estrogen receptor coactivator genes PPARGC1A and PPARGC1B for familial breast cancer susceptibility. Owing to their impact on estrogen signaling, these polymorphisms might also influence adjuvant anti-estrogen therapy, using agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifen, and outcome of breast cancer patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16704985
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  • 12
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; TISSUES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROGRESSION ; DESIGN ; PROMOTER ; NUMBER ; AGE ; SNP ; PATHOGENESIS ; REGION ; REGIONS ; case-control studies ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; single-nucleotide ; GATA-3 ; GROWTH-HORMONE ; SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS/
    Abstract: Context: The contribution of prolactin (PRL) through its receptor (PRLR) to the pathogenesis and progression of human mammary tumors has received recent attention. Objective: We investigated whether genetic variation in the PRL and PRLR genes is associated with the risk of breast cancer ( BC). Design: We conducted a case-control study with a total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Setting: The study was conducted at an academic research laboratory and university clinics. Patients and Other Participants: A total of 441 German familial, unrelated BC cases and 552 controls matched by age, ethnicity, and geographical region participated in the study. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures(s): SNP genotype and haplotype distributions and haplotype interactions were correlated with the risk of BC. Results: Two SNPs (rs1341239 and rs12210179) within the PRL promoter regions were significantly associated with increased risk in homozygotes for the variant alleles [ odds ratio ( OR), 1.67 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11 - 2.50; and OR, 2.09 and 95% CI, 1.23 - 3.52, respectively]. The PRL haplotype containing the variant alleles of the promoter SNPs increased significantly the risk of BC ( OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.07 - 1.90). A PRLR haplotype was associated with a significant decrease in BC risk ( OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54 - 0.89). An increasing number of PRL and PRLR risk haplotypes led to a significant trend of increasing risk for BC (chi(2) = 12.15; P = 0.007). Conclusions: Genetic variation in the PRL and PRLR genes was shown to influence BC risk. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the role of the PRL and PRLR genes in the risk of BC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16434456
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  • 13
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; RISK ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; FAMILY ; INDEX ; FREQUENCY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; FREQUENCIES ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; DIFFERENCE ; BRCA1 ; MUTATION ; REPAIR ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; FAMILIES ; VARIANT ; case control studies ; methods ; NUCLEAR ; GENOTYPE ; function ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; FANCONI-ANEMIA ; ENGLAND ; case control ; - ; BRIP1/BACH1
    Abstract: Background: Inactivating and truncating mutations of the nuclear BRCA1-interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) have been shown to be the major cause of Fanconi anaemia and, due to subsequent alterations of BRCA1 function, predispose to breast cancer ( BC). Methods: We investigated the effect of BRIP1 - 64G 〉 A and Pro919Ser on familial BC risk by means of TaqMan allelic discrimination, analysing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative index patients of 571 German BC families and 712 control individuals. Results: No significant differences in genotype frequencies between BC cases and controls for BRIP1 - 64G 〉 A and Pro919Ser were observed. Conclusion: We found no effect of the putatively functional BRIP1 variants - 64G 〉 A and Pro919Ser on the risk of familial BC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17504528
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  • 14
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; Germany ; KINASE ; THERAPY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; IMPACT ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; COLORECTAL CANCERS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; GENOTYPE ; LOSSES ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; AURORA KINASES ; CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION ; HARDY-WEINBERG DISEQUILIBRIUM ; MITOTIC KINASE
    Abstract: Aurora genes play a crucial role in tumourigenesis and are overexpressed in many kinds of cancers. We investigated whether coding variants within the Aurora genes are associated with familial breast cancer risk. While AURKA Phe31Ile (1712T 〉 A) and AURKB Thr298Met (893G 〉 A) showed no association, the synonymous AURKB Ser295Ser (885A 〉 G) polymorphism resulted in an increased breast cancer risk for carriers of the homozygous 885G genotype (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.05-2.0, P = 0.02). Due to the impact of aurora kinases in the loss of chromosomal integrity during carcinogenesis, this variant may also influence the therapy outcome in breast cancer. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16762494
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  • 15
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; COMMON ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; TUMORS ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; chromosome ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; PROMOTER ; NUMBER ; AGE ; MUTATION ; SNP ; cancer risk ; REGION ; case-control studies ; CHROMOSOMES ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; assembly ; TUMORIGENESIS ; CHECKPOINT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; DEFECTS ; interaction ; CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY ; case control studies ; HAPLOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPES ; single-nucleotide ; PROFILES ; USA ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; DEFECT ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; ANEUPLOIDY ; SPINDLE CHECKPOINT ; case control ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION ; ethnicity ; MITOTIC CHECKPOINT ; E2F
    Abstract: Aneuploidy, an aberrant number of chromosomes, is a very common characteristic of many types of cancers, including tumors of the breast. There is increasing evidence that defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint, which controls correct chromosome segregation between two daughter cells, might contribute to tumorigenesis. In the present study we examined the effect of promoter and coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD2L1, MAD2L2, TTK) on familial breast cancer (BC) risk. A case-control study was carried out with a total of nine SNPs using 441 German, familial BC cases and 552 controls matched by age, ethnicity and geographical region. Neither the individual SNPs in the studied genes nor the haplotypes in the BUB1B, CENPE and TTK genes caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. We used the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method in order to identify gene-gene interactions among the six mitotic checkpoint genes, but no association was detected. Therefore, our results indicate that the investigated SNPs in the mitotic checkpoint genes do not affect the risk of familial BC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17268814
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  • 16
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; Germany ; human ; KINASE ; RISK ; SITE ; SITES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TIME ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; DOMAIN ; BINDING ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; ALPHA ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACID ; TARGET ; resistance ; cancer risk ; GROWTH-INHIBITION ; LOCALIZATION ; PKA ; EXCHANGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; specificity ; CANCER PATIENTS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; CYCLIC-AMP ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; TAMOXIFEN ; SUBCELLULAR-LOCALIZATION ; RE ; VARIANT ; HUMAN CANCER ; ESTROGEN ; INTERVAL ; analysis ; estrogen receptor ; HUMAN CANCERS ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; PROTEIN-KINASE-A ; breast cancer susceptibility ; ALPHA SUBUNIT ; ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDE ; D-AKAP2 ; RII-BETA SUBUNIT
    Abstract: Overexpression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is a hallmark of the great majority of human cancers including breast cancer. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate the specificity of PKA signalling by localizing the kinase to its subcellular sites. We tested the hypothesis whether the functional amino acid exchange Ile646Val, located in the kinase-binding domain of AKAP10, is a low-penetrance familial breast cancer risk factor. Ile646Val alters the binding of AKAP10 to PKA and is associated with morbidity. The analysis of 787 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer patients and 993 controls revealed an association of the AKAP10 Ile646Val polymorphism with increased familial breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.51, P = 0.024]. Our previous study has shown that AKAP13 Lys526Gln is associated with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.58). Here, we discovered that carriers of both variants, AKAP10 Ile646Val and AKAP13 Lys526Gln, are at a further enhanced breast cancer risk (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.30-4.46, P = 0.005). PKA is a major target of therapeutic anticancer strategies. Phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha by PKA induces resistance against the anti-estrogen tamoxifen. Our results indicate for the first time the importance of AKAP10 Ile646Val for familial breast cancer susceptibility. Due to the impact of Ile646Val on the subcellular localization of PKA, it will be interesting to investigate whether this polymorphism influences the effectiveness of PKA and tamoxifen based therapeutic anticancer concepts
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16956908
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  • 17
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; genetics ; familial risk ; USA ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; Genetic ; 33 ; COMMON VARIANTS ; Genome-wide association studies
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, but these explain only a small fraction of the familial risk of the disease. Five of these loci were identified through a two-stage GWAS involving 390 familial cases and 364 controls in the first stage, and 3,990 cases and 3,916 controls in the second stage(1). To identify additional loci, we tested over 800 promising associations from this GWAS in a further two stages involving 37,012 cases and 40,069 controls from 33 studies in the CGEMS collaboration and Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We found strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19330027
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  • 18
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; MUTATION ; cancer risk ; GENOTYPES ; BETA ; TGF-BETA-1 ; BRCA2 ; VARIANT ; secretion ; TGF-BETA ; risk modifiers ; GENOTYPE ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; CONSORTIUM ; Hereditary cancer ; TRANSFORMING-GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA-1 GENE
    Abstract: Background The transforming growth factor beta-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-beta, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population. Methods To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92-1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81-1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18523885
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  • 19
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; COMMON ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; SNP ; REDUCED RISK ; cancer risk ; TARGETS ; SINGLE ; VARIANT ; CASPASE-8 ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; ALLELES ; USA ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; COMMON VARIANT ; CASP8 GENE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: Recent large-scale studies have been successful in identifying common, low-penetrance variants associated with common cancers. One such variant in the caspase-8 (CASPS) gene, D302H (rs1045485), has been confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk, although the functional effect of this polymorphism (if any) is not yet clear. In order to further map the CASP8 gene with respect to breast cancer susceptibility, we performed extensive haplotype analyses using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) chosen to tag all common variations in the gene (tSNP). We used a staged study design based on 3,200 breast cancer and 3,324 control subjects from the United Kingdom, Utah, and Germany. Using a haplotype-mining algorithm in the UK cohort, we identified a four-SNP haplotype that was significantly associated with breast cancer and that was superior to any other single or multi-locus combination (P = 8.0 x 10(-5)), with a per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of 1.30 (1.12-1.49). The result remained significant after adjustment for the multiple testing inherent in mining techniques (false discovery rate, q = 0.044). As expected, this haplotype includes the D302H locus. Multicenter analyses on a subset of the tSNPs yielded consistent results. This risk haplotype is likely to carry one or more underlying breast cancer susceptibility alleles, making it an excellent candidate for resequencing in homozygous individuals. An understanding of the mode of action of these alleles will aid risk assessment and may lead to the identification of novel treatment targets in breast cancer. [Cancer Res 2009;69(7):2724-8]
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19318553
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  • 20
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; THERAPY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; MESSENGER-RNA ; CARCINOGENESIS ; BINDING ; DOWN-REGULATION ; TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; SNP ; TARGETS ; REPRESSION ; RETINOIC ACID ; VARIANT ; THERAPIES ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; BINDING-SITES ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; therapeutic ; COMMON VARIANTS ; CHROMOSOME 6Q ; II RECEPTOR
    Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate expression of target transcripts by hybridization to complementary sites of their messenger RNA targets. Chen et al. have described several putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA target sites. Here, we selected 11 miRNA target site SNPs located in 3' untranslated regions of genes involved in cancer and breast cancer to analyze their impact on breast cancer risk using a large familial study population. Whereas no association was observed for 10 SNPs, a significant association was revealed for the variant affecting a miRNA target site in the estrogen receptor (ESR) 1. Age stratification showed that the association was stronger in premenopausal women [C versus T: odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-0.89, P = 0.010]. Furthermore, the effect was stronger in high-risk familial cases (C versus T: OR = 0.42, CI = 0.25-0.71, P = 0.0009). Clinical studies have shown that elimination of ESR1 significantly reduces breast cancer risk. Thus, therapies that inhibit ESR1 are used for breast cancer treatment. According to in silico analysis, ESR1_rs2747648 affects the binding capacity of miR-453, which is stronger when the C allele is present. In contrast, the T allele attenuates the binding of miR-453, which might lead to a reduced miRNA-mediated ESR1 repression, in consequence higher ESR1 protein levels and an increased breast cancer risk. Thus, the breast cancer protective effect observed for the C allele in premenopausal women is biologically reasonable. The analysis of large study populations in multicentre collaboration will be needed to verify the association and answer questions regarding the possible impact of this variant on therapeutic and clinical outcome
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19028706
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