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  • nutrition  (12)
  • VEGETABLES  (6)
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  • 11
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; BREAST-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; Mediterranean diet ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; dietary patterns ; VITAMIN-C ; RECALLS ; energy intake ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; WEIGHT-GAIN ; PROCESSED FOODS ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; industrial foods ; MAJOR DIETARY PATTERNS ; nutrient patterns ; PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION ; standardisation
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35-74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g/day) were computed according to their degree of food processing (that is, highly, moderately and non-processed foods) using a specifically designed classification system. The contribution (%) of highly processed foods to the centre mean intakes of diet and 26 nutrients (including energy) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database (ENDB). The effect of different possible confounders was also investigated. Results: Highly processed foods were an important source of the nutrients considered, contributing between 61% (Spain) and 78-79% (the Netherlands and Germany) of mean energy intakes. Only two nutrients, beta-carotene (34-46%) and vitamin C (28-36%), had a contribution from highly processed foods below 50% in Nordic countries, in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, whereas for the other nutrients, the contribution varied from 50 to 91% (excluding alcohol). In southern countries (Greece, Spain, Italy and France), the overall contribution of highly processed foods to nutrient intakes was lower and consisted largely of staple or basic foods (for example, bread, pasta/rice, milk, vegetable oils), whereas highly processed foods such as crisp bread, breakfast cereals, margarine and other commercial foods contributed more in Nordic and central European centres. Conclusions: Highly industrially processed foods dominate diets and nutrient patterns in Nordic and central European countries. The greater variations observed within southern countries may reflect both a larger contribution of non/moderately processed staple foods along with a move from traditional to more industrialized dietary patterns.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888275
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  • 12
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; prevention ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; nutrient intake ; RECALL ; METAANALYSIS ; SURVIVORS ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; 24-h dietary recall ; COLLECTION ; Dietary Supplements ; BENEFIT ; minerals ; nutrient intakes ; ADVERSE EVENTS ; ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTS ; MULTIVITAMIN ; NORWEGIAN WOMEN
    Abstract: Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Specific questions on dietary supplement use were asked as a part of single 24-h recalls performed on 36 034 men and women aged 35-74 years from 1995 to 2000. Results: Between countries, the mean percentage of dietary supplement use varied almost 10-fold among women and even more among men. There was a clear north-south gradient in use, with a higher consumption in northern countries. The lowest crude mean percentage of use was found in Greece (2.0% among men, 6.7% among women), and the highest was in Denmark (51.0% among men, 65.8% among women). Use was higher in women than in men. Vitamins, minerals or combinations of them were the predominant types of supplements reported, but there were striking differences between countries. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are wide variations in supplement use in Europe, which may affect individual and population nutrient intakes. The results underline the need to monitor consumption of dietary supplements in Europe, as well as to evaluate the risks and benefits.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888276
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