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  • 11
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although several clinical studies have shown that increased serum concentrations of protein S100B predict ischaemic brain damage after cardiac surgery, S100B may also be released from the heart or other injured tissue. We therefore investigated the correlation between serum S100B levels and those of the specific cardiac marker troponin I in order to assess the cerebral vs. extracerebral origin of S100B. In 64 cardiac surgical patients, serial blood samples were drawn for the measurement of S100B and troponin I before surgery and for seven days after surgery. Neurological function was assessed before with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the Folstein Mini Mental Test. The data show that a sustained increase in serum S100B levels is associated with neurological dysfunction, as witnessed by a positive correlation between S100B values and the results of the neuropsychological tests. In contrast, the early postoperative increased levels of protein S100B derive from cardiac tissue, as shown by the positive correlation between S100B and cardiac troponin I levels.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Peri-operative myocardial ischaemia is the single most important risk factor for an adverse cardiac outcome after non-cardiac surgery. The present study examines whether intermittent 12-lead ECG recordings can be used as an early warning tool to identify patients suffering from peri-operative myocardial ischaemia and subsequent myocardial cell damage. Fifty-five vascular surgery patients at risk for or with a history of coronary artery disease were monitored for peri-operative myocardial ischaemia using intermittent 12-lead ECG recordings taken pre-operatively and at 15 min, 20 h, 48 h, 72 h and 84 h postoperatively. The effectiveness of the 12-lead ECG was gauged by examining concordance with continuous 3-channel Holter monitoring and capturing peri-operative myocardial ischaemia by serial analyses of creatine kinase myocardial band isoenzyme and cardiac troponin T and I. The incidence of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia detected by 12-lead ECG was 44% and was identifiable in most patients (88%) 15 min after surgery. The incidence of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia detected by continuous monitoring was 53%, with the most severe episodes occurring intra-operatively and during emergence from anaesthesia. The concordance of the 12-lead method with continuous monitoring was 72%. The concordance of creatine kinase myocardial band isoenzyme activity with the 12-lead method was 71% and with Holter monitoring 57%. The concordance of mass concentration of creatine kinase myocardial band with 12-lead ECG recordings was 75%, and the corresponding value for Holter monitoring was 68%. The concordance of cardiac troponin T and I levels with the 12-lead method was 85% and 87%, respectively, and concordance with Holter monitoring was 72% and 66%, respectively. The postoperative 12-lead ECG identified peri-operative myocardial ischaemia associated with subsequent myocardial cell damage in most patients undergoing vascular surgery.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Brain resuscitation ; Cardiac arrest ; Cerebral ischemia ; Microcirculation ; Thrombolytic therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective Successful resuscitation of the brain requires complete microcirculatory reperfusion, which, however, may be impaired by activation of blood coagulation after cardiac arrest. The study addresses the question of whether postischemic thrombolysis is effective in reducing cerebral noreflow phenomenon. Design 14 adult normothermic cats were submitted to 15-min cardiac arrest, followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 30 min of spontaneous recirculation. The CPR protocol included closed-chest cardiac massage, administration of epinephrine 0.2 mg/kg, bicarbonate 2mEq/kg per 30 min, and electrical defibrillation shocks. Interventions During CPR, animals in the treatment group (n=6) received intravenous bolus injections of 100 U/kg heparin and 1 mg/kg recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), followed by an infusion of rt-PA 1mg/kg per 30 min. Measurements and results Microcirculatory reperfusion of the brain was visualized by labeling the circulating blood with 300 mg/kg of 15% fluorescein isothiocyanate albumin at the end of the recirculation period. Areas of cerebral noreflow — defined as the absence of microvascular filling — were identified by fluorescence microscopy at eight standard coronal levels of forebrain, and expressed as the percentage of total sectional area. One animal in the treatment group was excluded from further analysis because of intracerebral hemorrhage due to brain injury during trepanation. Autopsy revealed the absence of intracranial, intrathoracic, or intra-abdominal bleeding in all the other animals. In untreated animals (n=8), no-reflow affected 28±13% of total forebrain sectional areas, and only 1 out of 8 animals showed homogeneous reperfusion (i.e., no-reflow 〈15% of total forebrain sectional areas). Thrombolytic therapy (n=5) significantly reduced no-reflow to 7±5% of total forebrain sectional areas and all treated animals showed homogeneous reperfusion at the microcirculatory level. Conclusions The present data demonstrate that thrombolytic therapy improves microcirculatory reperfusion of the cat brain when administered during reperfusion after cardiac arrest.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Weaning ; CPAP ; BiPAP ; Extravascular lung water ; Cardiac surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) on extravascular lung water during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting. Design; Prospective, randomized clinical study. Setting; Intensive care unit at a university hospital. Patients; Seventy-five patients following coronary artery bypass grafting. Interventions; After extubation of the trachea, patients were treated for 30 min with CPAP via face mask (n=25), with nasal BiPAP (n=25), or with oxygen administration via nasal cannula combined with routine chest physiotherapy (RCP) for 10 min (n=25). Measurements and results: Extravascular lung water (EVLW), pulmonary blood volume index (PBVI) and cardiac index (CI) were obtained during mechanical ventilation (T1), T-piece breathing (T2), interventions (T3), spontaneous breathing 60 min (T4) and 90 min (T5) after extubation of the trachea using a combined dye-thermal dilution method. Changing from mechanical ventilation to T-piece breathing did not show any significant differences in EVLW between the three groups, but a significant increase in PBVI from 155±5 ml/m2 to 170±4 ml/m2 could be observed in all groups (p〈0.05). After extubation of the trachea and treatment with BiPAP, PBVI decreased significantly to 134±6 ml/m2 (p〈0.05). After treatment with CPAP or BiPAP, EVLW did not change significantly in these groups (5.5±0.3 ml/kg vs 5.0±0.4 ml/kg and 5.1±0.4 ml/kg vs 5.7±0.4 ml/kg). In the RCP-treated group, however, EVLW increased significantly from 5.8±0.3 ml/kg to 7.1±0.4 ml/kg (p〈0.05). Sixty and 90 min after extubation, EVLW stayed at a significantly higher level in the RCP-treated group (7.5±0.5 ml/kg and 7.4±0.5 ml/kg) than in the CPAP-(5.6±0.3 ml/kg and 5.9±0.4 ml/kg) or BiPAP-treated groups (5.2±0.4 ml/kg and 5.2±0.4 ml/kg). No significant differences in CI could be observed within the three groups during the time period from mechanical ventilation to 90 min after extubation of the trachea. Conclusions: Mask CPAP and nasal BiPAP after extubation of the trachea prevent the increase in extravascular lung water during x weaning from mechanical ventilation. This effect is seen for at least 1 h after the discontinuation of CPAP or BiPAP treatment.Further studies have to evaluate the clinical relevance of this phenomenon.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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