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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It is well-established that light pulses regulate components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases I/II (ERK) cascade in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) circadian clock. These events are important for photic-resetting of the circadian clock. The SCN circadian clock is also reset by pulses of dark, but it is unknown if this stimulus alters the activity of ERK, the transcription factor Elk-1 or expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the SCN. Using Syrian hamsters free-running in constant light, we determined the effects of dark pulses on these factors in the SCN. In constant light, levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) showed significant circadian variation in the Syrian hamster SCN, while levels of c-Fos or phosphorylated Elk-1 (P-Elk-1) did not. A 6-h dark pulse beginning at circadian time (CT) 8 down-regulated expression of P-ERK and c-Fos, but not P-Elk-1, in the SCN. Following termination of the pulse, levels of c-Fos increased above time-matched control values, while P-ERK expression did not. When given at the beginning of the subjective night (CT13), a 6-h dark pulse did not phase-shift behavioural rhythms and failed to alter the expression of c-Fos, P-ERK, or P-Elk-1 in the SCN. At the level of the visual thalamus, expression of c-Fos in the intergeniculate leaflet was higher during the subjective night as compared to the subjective day, although dark pulses had no robust effects on expression of c-Fos or P-ELK-1 in this structure. We conclude that dark-pulse resetting of the circadian clock is complex and involves both non-photic and photic components.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of cutaneous pathology 31 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Melanoma is well known for its ability to involve regional lymph nodes in the early stage. However, the presence of lymphangiogenesis in melanoma is still controversial due to lack of lymphatic-specific markers. The purpose of this study was to determine the intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using a novel lymphatic vessel-specific marker D2-40 and compare it to general vessel density (GVD) as determined by CD31 immunostaining in a series of melanocytic lesions.Methods:  The intra- and peritumoral GVD and LVD were examined by immunohistochemistry using D2-40 and CD31 antibodies in a series of melanocytic lesions.Results:  We found significantly higher intratumoral LVD in melanomas as compared to either common acquired or dysplastic nevi (p 〈 0.01). Although peritumoral LVD in melanoma and malignant melanoma in situ was higher compared to nevi, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.059). There was no significant difference in GVD among the various groups of melanocytic lesions.Conclusions:  Our results show that intratumoral LVD is significantly increased in melanomas compared to benign nevi. The higher intratumoral lymphatic density in invasive melanomas suggests that melanoma cells might promote lymphangiogenesis. In addition, assessment of intratumoral LVD may be potentially useful in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: p 〈 0.003). The adjunct group had more preoperative renal insufficiency (p 〈 0.05), an established risk factor for neurologic deficit (odds ratio = 2.2 in published studies). All other risk factors for neurologic deficit occurred with comparable frequency in both groups. We conclude that the introduction of adjuncts has dramatically reduced the neurologic risk associated with type I thoracoabdominal or total descending thoracic aortic repair. Previously considered high risk for neurologic complications, these aneurysms can now be reclassified as low risk in surgery accompanied by adjuncts. Future investigations will focus on type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm as the major source of neurologic morbidity.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 61 (1990), S. 1448-1456 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Described here is the design and construction of a pulse-power generator capable of discharging at high repetition rates. It consists of eight triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. These lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single thyratron at the other end to produce an open circuit voltage across a stack of six times the charging voltage. An x-ray diode has been constructed and matched to this pulse-power source making possible the emission of an average bremsstrahlung exposure rate of 17 R/S from a sequence of 40-ns pulses. When operated at 60-kV charging voltage, direct spectral measurements show the output to be a true continuum, peaking at intensities in excess of 5×108 photons/keV/shot and containing useful intensities of photons having energies of 300 keV.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 46 (1954), S. 290-296 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 60 (1992), S. 2062-2064 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work we report the first observation of the screening effect in large-area, cold-cathode diodes. A framing camera was used to observe the formation of emission centers (ECs) on a 200 cm2 velvet emitter. The density of ECs increased as a function of applied magnetic field as predicted. The current per EC decreased as the magnetic field was increased. These phenomena suggest methods of increasing the spatial and temporal uniformity of high-power electron beams.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of sensory studies 18 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Asian white radish processed foods are commonly consumed in Japan and Korea and are increasingly available in many Western countries. The major flavor constituent of Asian white radish, 4-methylthio-3-trans-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), was extracted as an oil and added in varying concentrations to an unflavored cracker biscuit. Untrained taste panels of Japanese, Korean and Australian nationals were presented with treated biscuits and their concentration preference for MTBITC determined. The taste preferences (degree of liking) of the Japanese and Koreans differed markedly with the Japanese preferring biscuits containing 110 μmole MTBITC/100 g while the Koreans preferred 〈 50 μmole/100 g (the lowest concentration tested). The difference is attributed to the Korean use of Asian white radish in highly spiced foods compared to the Japanese use without the addition of strongly flavored ingredients. The Australians also preferred 〈50 μmole/100 g but this was probably due to unfamiliarity with eating white radish.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 163 (1949), S. 62-63 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] WE have already outlined1 the results of an X-ray examination of thin calcium fluoride films, evaporated on polished glass surfaces. The powder X-ray camera used was of the Seeman–Bohlin focusing type. It had a radius of 10 cm. and carried photographic film about 2 cm. wide set ...
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: case–control studies ; colorectal neoplasms ; family characteristics ; NSAIDs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background:We undertook the present analyses to determine whether family history of colorectal cancer in a parent or sibling modifies the inverse association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with colorectal cancer risk. Methods:We used data from two case–control studies of colorectal cancer. The hospital-based Case Control Surveillance Study included 1526 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 4192 cancer controls and 6036 noncancer controls. A population-based study conducted in Massachusetts enrolled 1201 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 1201 community controls. Data on NSAID use and risk factors for colorectal cancer were collected by interview. Results:In both studies there was a reduction in the odds ratios among subjects who used NSAIDs regularly continuing into the previous year, regardless of family history. In the Case–Control Surveillance data, the odds ratio was 0.4 (95% CI 0.2–0.9) among subjects with a family history and 0.5 (95% CI 0.4–0.7) among subjects without a family history. The comparable odds ratios in the Massachusetts data were 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–0.9) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.9). Conclusions:These data indicate that regular continuing NSAID use is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer among persons with a family history of the disease, as well as those without such a history.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: antidepressants ; benzodiazepines ; ovarian cancer ; phenothiazines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives:An association of increased risk of ovarian cancer with use of antidepressants or benzodiazepine tranquilizers has been reported from a case–control study. We assessed the association between ovarian cancer risk and the use of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), phenothiazine antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, in data from the Case–Control Surveillance Study. Methods:From 1976 through 1998, data were collected from hospital patients in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore based on demographic factors, reproductive and medical history, and medication use. In the present analyses, cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 748) were compared with cancer controls (n = 1496) and noncancer controls admitted for trauma and acute infection (n = 1496). We estimated Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios adjusted for age, study center, and year of interview. Results:Odds ratios for regular use (at least 4 days/week for at least 1 month) were compatible with 1.0 for every drug class. For tricyclics and benzodiazepines the upper 95% confidence limits were less than 1.6. For phenothiazines the upper limit was 2.6 with cancer controls and 1.4 with noncancer controls. Only five cases used SSRIs, yielding unstable results. Odds ratios were not increased among women who had used any drug class for at least 5 years, nor among women who had first used them 10 or more years previously. Conclusions:These data do not support an association between regular use of any of the drugs under study with ovarian cancer risk.
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