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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 194 (1987), S. 447-452 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 137 (1989), S. 34-38 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Glomerulosclerosis ; matrix metalloproteinase ; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases ; obese Zucker rat.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The obese Zucker rat represents a model of obesity combined with insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, which over a period of several months develops spontaneous glomerulosclerosis. The present study addressed the question as to whether glomerular sclerosis was associated with alterations in the degradation of matrix components. In the early phase (up to 6 months) glomeruli from obese rats displayed increased total collagen content (+ 64 %) and decreased gelatinolytic activity (− 34 %) as compared to lean control animals. This decline in glomerular gelatinolytic activity was due to a reduction in gelatinase B [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9]. Glomerular MMP-9 mRNA was reduced 4.6 ± 0.6-fold (n = 3; p 〈 0.05), MMP-9 protein was not detectable by Western blotting and MMP-9 activity was considerably suppressed in gelatin zymograms. MMP-2, in terms of mRNA expression and activity, was unchanged. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 mRNA expression, TIMP-1 protein (immunohistochemistry) and TIMP-1 activity (reverse zymography) were enhanced in glomeruli from obese rats, while TIMP-2 mRNA remained unchanged. Moreover, mRNA for the α1 IV collagen chain was 2.1 ± 0.8-fold higher in glomeruli isolated from obese animals (n = 3; p 〈 0.05). These findings indicate that matrix expansion in glomeruli from obese Zucker rats is due to both enhanced synthesis of matrix components as well as reduced degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. Apparently the latter effect is based on a reduction in MMP-9 and up-regulation of its inhibitor TIMP-1. [Diabetologia (1997) 40: 1035–1043]
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on naturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 m g–1 soil, and from 55 to 335 m g–1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 m g–1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 m g–1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 33.80 ; 42.65 ; 42.72
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract An intense radiation at 395.0 nm has been observed when lithium vapor is optically pumped in a heat pipe with a pulsed dye laser whose output wavelength is tuned near the Li 2s–4s two-photon resonance transition. The radiation is emitted in the direction along the pump laser beam. It is proposed that the 395.0 nm radiation is mainly generated through three-photon excitation and one-Raman-photon scattering followed by two-cascade (spontaneous) emission. The overall reaction mechanism can be described by a parametric six-wave mixing process. The quantum efficiency of the observed process is estimated to be of the order of 2 × 10−6.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 80 (2002), S. 28-30 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Co is undercooled to 227 K (0.128 Tm) and its specific heat has been determined as 40.6 Jmol−1 K−1 by electromagnetic levitation drop calorimeter, whose good accuracy is verified by the measured specific heat data of pure nickel. On the basis of measured specific heat data, the thermodynamic properties, such as thermodynamic driving force and relative nucleation rate, are calculated. Moreover, the theoretical models of Turnbull and Dubey–Ramachandrarao are also used to calculate the thermodynamic properties for a comparison. It is found that both the thermodynamic driving force and relative nucleation rate have large deviation compared with the calculated results based on experimental data. This indicates that, since the deviation of specific heat value has a drastic influence on thermodynamic driving force and nucleation rate for the undercooled liquid metals, it is necessary to measure the specific heat quantitatively by experiments. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Silicon nanowires have been synthesized by laser ablation of Si powder targets at 1200 °C. Transmission electron microscopy study showed that most Si nanowires had smooth surfaces and nearly the same diameter of about 16 nm. Beside the most abundant smooth-surface nanowires, four other forms of nanowires, named spring-shaped, fishbone-shaped, frog-egg-shaped, and necklace-shaped nanowires, were observed. The formation of nanowires into different shapes was explained by the two-step growth model based on the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 94 (1991), S. 5481-5487 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Measurements of rate coefficients for intramultiplet state transfer of Zn(4 3P1→4 3PJ') by collisions with the rare gases are presented. The state-to-state binary rate coefficients are derived from least-squares fittings of the time-resolved triexponential behavior of the 4 3P1 fluorescence. These rate coefficients were studied systematically over a temperature range of 690–1100 K in order to characterize the velocity dependence of the collisional coupling. The systematic behavior of the rate coefficients with varying temperature and noble gas species is qualitatively consistent with a nearly adiabatic coupling limit for noncrossing levels.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 55 (1999), S. 1360-1361 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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