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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nicotine ; bioavailability ; nasal spray
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absolute bioavailability of nicotine administered nasally, as drops to the nasal conchae and nasal septum, and as a nasal spray, has been studied in eight healthy volunteers. Single nasal doses of 1 mg nicotine were given and plasma concentrations of nicotine were followed for 6 h. Compared to an intravenous infusion of nicotine, the bioavailability of the nasal administrations was 60 to 75%. The rate of absorption was fast, the maximum concentration being reached after about 10 min. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the different nasal treatments.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé On a examiné, 5,7 ans en moyenne (de 3 à 13) après le traumatisme, 39 patients de 34 ans d'âge moyen, traités orthopédiquement pour rupture unilatéral du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA). Le membre inférieur opposé a servi de contrôle. Le score d'activité de Tegner était significativement inférieur au niveau d'activité souhaité. Aucun patient n'était asymptomatique et seulement deux sur 39 pouvaient pratiquer des sports nécessitant des mouvements de pivotement. L'instabilité et la douleur étaient les symptômes les plus habituels. Le moment isokinétique de flexion et d'extension, le saut à cloche-pied, ainsi que la laxité du genou testée instrumentalement, étaient significativement altérés du côté blessé, lors de l'examen. La dégradation fonctionnelle n'était pas correlée avec les tests cliniques de laxité du genou. Peu de patients sont subjectivement satisfaits de la fonction de leur genou après rupture du LCA, malgré un programme particulier de réhabilitation.
    Notes: Summary Thirty-nine patients with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were treated conservatively and were subsequently examined at an average of 5.7 years after injury, the uninjured leg acting as a control. The Tegner activity score was significantly lower than the desired activity level. No patients were free of symptoms and only two could take part in sport which involved pivoting. The isokinetic knee extensor and flexor torques, as well as the one-leg-hop and instrumented knee joint laxity tests, were significantly impaired at follow-up. Functional impairment was not related to tests of knee joint laxity. Few patients were pleased with their subjective knee function after an ACL rupture despite thorough initial rehabilitation.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Mannan and xylan present in bleached softwood dissolving pulp were found to be partially resistant to hemicellulases even after repeated enzyme treatment. Despite the additional effect of an endoglucanase from Gloeophyllum sepiarium, which increased the␣accessibility of mannan and xylan to a mannanase from Sclerotium rolfsii and to a xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the enzyme mixture solubilized only half of the hemicellulose present in the pulp. Half of the remaining hemicellulose present in the pulp appeared to be entrapped within the cellulose matrix while the other half was associated with lignin-carbohydrate complexes. The latter hemicellulose portion was isolated and characterized. Chromatography and spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of two types of lignin-carbohydrate complex, a galactoglucomannan-lignin complex (degree of polymerization DP 50–60) and a xylan-lignin complex (DP 〉200).
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Background The yeast Malassezia is considered to be one of the factors that can contribute to atopic dermatitis (AD). Objectives To investigate the reactivity to Malassezia allergens, measured as specific serum IgE, positive skin prick test and positive atopy patch test (APT), in adult patients with AD. Methods In total, 132 adult patients with AD, 14 with seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and 33 healthy controls were investigated for their reactions to M. sympodialis extract and three recombinant Malassezia allergens (rMal s 1, rMal s 5 and rMal s 6). Results Sixty-seven per cent of the AD patients, but only one of the SD patients and none of the healthy controls, showed a positive reaction to at least one of the Malassezia allergens (extract and/or recombinant allergens) in at least one of the tests. The levels of M. sympodialis-specific IgE in serum correlated with the total serum IgE levels. Elevated serum levels of M. sympodialis-specific IgE were found in 55% and positive APT reactions in 41% of the AD patients with head and neck dermatitis. A relatively high proportion of patients without head and neck dermatitis and patients with low total serum IgE levels had a positive APT for M. sympodialis, despite lower proportions of individuals with M. sympodialis-specific IgE among these groups of patients. Conclusions These results support that Malassezia can play a role in eliciting and maintaining eczema in patients with AD. The addition of an APT to the test battery used in this study reveals a previously overlooked impact of Malassezia hypersensitivity in certain subgroups of AD patients.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Epoxide hydrolase mRNA ; Mouse ; Peroxisome ; Clofibrate ; Hypolipidemic drug
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA level in liver was increased eight-fold upon administration of the hypolipidemic drug and peroxisome proliferator clofibrate for 7 days to mice. The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA was back at control levels within 1–2 days after clofibrate withdrawal. The highest expression was in liver, intestine and kidney. Lower levels were found in heart and muscle and very low levels were found in testes, lung, brain and spleen. The mRNA levels were increased in liver, kidney and heart by clofibrate.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Keratinocytes ; Interferon-gamma ; Class II antigens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Explanted human keratinocytes exposed in vitro to recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were investigated for the appearance of mRNA for HLA-DR. Using in situ hybridization with a (35S)UTP-labelled HLA-DRβ cRNA probe, mRNA-positive cells were detected already within 6 h with maximal numbers of positive cells as well as the amount of mRNA per cell after 48 h. The corresponding protein HLA-DR, as analysed by immunoperoxidase staining, was detected on 20%–40% of the cells after 24 h and on almost all cells within 48 h. The expression of HLA-DQ and-DP antigens were always exceeded by that of HLA-DR. Whereas an increase in the concentration of IFN-γ above 50 U/ml did not affect the maximal level of HLA-DR reactive cells, there was a fourfold increase in the frequency of cells reactive with HLA-DQ and a twofold increase for HLA-DP when the IFN-γ concentration was raised from 50 to 500 U/ml. When IFN-γ was withdrawn from the cultures, HLA-DR mRNA and protein synthesis ceased — indicating the continuous need for IFN-γ to maintain the HLA-DR synthesis in keratinocytes.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; aetiology ; early growth ; breast feeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉 2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, aetiology, early growth, breast feeding.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p 〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 91–94]
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 60 (1970), S. 315-319 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study aims at evaluating an objective method for the description of bone structure in the human mandible. Human bone biopsies were harvested at mandibular implant sites prior to insertion of self-tapping Mark II fixtures. Altogether 15 biopsies were taken from 12 patients. Three patients donated 2 biopsies each, one proximally and one distally taken. Ground sections of about 100μm thickness were prepared prior to microradiography. These sections were ground to a final thickness of about 10μm followed by histological staining. Histomorphometrical analyses were performed on the microradiographed plates and on the ground sections. On average there was a bone area of about 54% calculated on the microradiographed plates (the 100-μm sections) versus a mean bone area of 62% light microscopically (the 10-μm sections). Bone lengths were calculated on the 10-μm sections in the central part (mid-line) and on each side of the mid-line, revealing a mean of 58% in the former case and a mean of 61% in the latter case. The amount of bone varied between individuals and in different locations of the same jaw. The postoperative healing period following fixture installation is standardized regardless of bone structure. It may in the future be appropriate to more individualize this healing period based on an objective bone quality score.
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