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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 28 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The chewing cycle is a functional movement, closely related to occlusion, the neuromuscular system and the central nervous system. Although actual chewing paths are complicated and vary from individual to individual, there are two typical patterns. One is more vertical in nature and is similar to a chopping movement. The other is a more lateral type that is similar to a grinding movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chewing patterns on occlusal wear. Fifteen subjects exhibiting a chopping–chewing pattern and 15 subjects exhibiting a grinding–chewing pattern were selected using a jaw tracking device. The occlusal wear values, obtained by both ordinal and Woda’s arbitrary scales, and frequencies of non-working facets were calculated for each group. The occlusal wear values in all teeth and in each segment, obtained by the use of the ordinal scale did not vary significantly between the chopping and the grinding type group. However, the occlusal wear values of the grinding type group in all teeth and in posterior teeth segments, obtained by the use of Woda’s arbitrary scale, were significantly greater than those of the chopping type group. Frequencies of non-working facets in posterior teeth showed no significant differences between the groups.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine the best molecular method for diagnosing leprosy, two sets of Mycobacterium leprae-specific primers were compared. Fresh biopsies and slit skin smear samples were obtained from 67 leprosy patients and examined by touchdown (TD) PCR using primers amplifying either a 129-bp fragment of the RLEP repetitive sequence or a 360-bp fragment of the 18-kDa protein gene of M. leprae. Seventeen of 30 (56.7%) biopsy specimens and four of 37 (10.8%) slit skin smear specimens were positive using the primer for the 18-kDa protein gene, whereas 24 of 30 (80%) biopsy and 27 of 37 (73%) slit skin smear samples showed detectable PCR products in the RLEP repetitive sequence. Twenty-one of 31 cases (67.7%) with a bacterial index of zero were PCR positive for the primer RLEP repetitive sequence. These results demonstrate that detection of M. leprae using PCR with primers to a RLEP sequence is more sensitive and specific than PCR with the 18-kDa protein gene primers and also slit smears with acid fast staining. PCR of RLEP repetitive sequences is therefore a useful means of detecting M. leprae DNA even when it is present at very low levels.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a bleaching agent (30% hydrogen peroxide) on the surface of bovine enamel using a scanning electron microscope and a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Five non-carious bovine incisors were bleached for 0, 1, 2 and 3 days using 30% hydrogen peroxide. The light reflectance spectrum was measured using a spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance mode. Colour values and colour differences in the teeth were evaluated from the reflectance measurements with the CIE L*a*b* colour coordinate system. Surface alterations in the bleached and unbleached teeth were studied using a scanning electron microscope. The change of reflectance in the teeth was related to the change of colour. Most reflectance change occurred within a 1-day bleaching, and this result was confirmed by a CIE L*a*b* colour coordinate system. The colour differences in the bleached teeth were significant enough to be perceived by the observer's eye. The comparison of bleached to unbleached bovine enamel revealed that the bleached surface showed non-uniform slight morphological alterations, and it developed varying degrees of surface porosity. This study indicates that the bleached bovine teeth showed apparent colour differences as well as slight morphological alterations after bleaching.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Gelonin ; Immunotoxins ; Chemotherapeutic agents ; Drug resistance ; Melanoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The development of cellular resistance to immunotoxins has been demonstrated in a variety of models and can involve a number of mechanisms. For the present study, an immunotoxin was utilized composed of an antimelanoma antibody ZME-018 recognizing a 240-kDa surface glycoprotein (gp 240) and the plant toxin gelonin. Human melanoma cells (A375-M) were grown in the presence of increasing amounts of ZME-gelonin and a clonal variant (A-375-ZR) was developed that was 100-fold resistant to ZME-gelonin compared to parental cells. Scatchard analysis showed that the A375-M parental cells had 260×103 ZME-gelonin-binding sites/cell with relatively low affinity (5 nM). In contrast, resistant A375-ZR cells demonstrated a reduced number of low-affinity sites (160×103/cell), but showed a small number (47×103) of higher-affinity sites (0.8 nM). Internalization rates and degradation rates of 125I-labeled ZME-gelonin were identical in both the parental and resistant cells. A375-ZR cells were found to be more resistant to vincristine and doxorubicin than were parental cells. Both cell lines were almost equally sensitive to native gelonin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin, melphalan, carmustine, interferon γ (IFNγ) and IFNα. In addition, both cell lines were equally sensitive to another gelonin-antibody conjugate that binds to cell-surface, GD2 (antibody 14G2A). However, resistant cells were twice as sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of etoposide than were parental cells. Finally, a variety of agents were tested in combination with ZME-gelonin against A375-ZR cells in an attempt to identify agents to augment immunotoxin cytotoxic effects against resistant cells. The agents 5-FU, cisplatin, IFNγ, IFNα, and etoposide were the most effective in augmenting the cytotoxicity of ZME-gelonin against resistant cells. These studies suggest that development of resistance to one immunotoxin does not cause development of cross-resistance to other gelonin immunotoxins. Further, specific biological response modifiers and chemotherapeutic agents may be effective in augmenting the effectiveness of immunotoxins and specifically targeting or reducing the emergence of immunotoxin-resistant cells.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eighteen cases of bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillation therapy with 60 mg Adriamycin daily. Overall, the treatment was markedly effective in two cases, effective in nine cases, and ineffective in seven cases. Bladder irritation was noted in four cases. Postinstillation therapy was required in most cases.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 75 (1972), S. 490-496 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent reports in the literature strongly support the idea that cement is the optimum form of fixation of the femoral component in total hip replacement. For hybrid total hip arthroplasty, we used a cemented cup instead of an uncemented cup since this was inevitable in cases of poorly developed acetabulum. The uncemented cone femoral component is also beneficial in cases of extremely narrow and cylindrical configuration of the medullary cavity of untreated congenital dislocation of the hips (CDH) and tuberculosis or septic arthritis in childhood. We reviewed the clinical result of a consecutive series of patients with cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with recent studies on hybrid reconstruction using survivorship analysis. This subsequent study involved a hybrid uncemented Wagner cone femoral component and a cemented acetabular component with roof reinforcement by additional impacted cancellous allograft with hydroxyapatite (HA). We believe that early failure of the cemented components was due to an adverse effect of thin cement mantles around cemented femoral stems as well as the cemented cup in THA. In addition, 8 patients who received our modification of the Charnley CDH component had poor results even though we reduced the stem geometry and thickness. Furthermore, intraoperative fracture and splitting of the proximal femur was a major complication during implantation. Contrary to expectations, the results of these hybrid reconstructions were extremely encouraging (average follow-up period of 2–4.5 years). In addition to our experience of the cemented versus hybrid THA involving the uncemented Wagner femoral component, we have determined positive indications for the untreated and severely distorted anatomy of bilateral CDH for which surgical interventions for reconstruction were not recommended before.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent reports in the literature strongly support the idea that cement is the optimum form of fixation of the femoral component in total hip replacement. For hybrid total hip arthroplasty, we used a cemented cup instead of an uncemented cup since this was inevitable in cases of poorly developed acetabulum. The uncemented cone femoral component is also beneficial in cases of extremely narrow and cylindrical configuration of the medullary cavity of untreated congenital dislocation of the hips (CDH) and tuberculosis or septic arthritis in childhood. We reviewed the clinical result of a consecutive series of patients with cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with recent studies on hybrid reconstruction using survivorship analysis. This subsequent study involved a hybrid uncemented Wagner cone femoral component and a cemented acetabular component with roof reinforcement by additional impacted cancellous allograft with hydroxyapatite (HA). We believe that early failure of the cemented components was due to an adverse effect of thin cement mantles around cemented femoral stems as well as the cemented cup in THA. In addition, 8 patients who received our modification of the Charnley CDH component had poor results even though we reduced the stem geometry and thickness. Furthermore, intraoperative fracture and splitting of the proximal femur was a major complication during implantation. Contrary to expectations, the results of these hybrid reconstructions were extremely encouraging (average follow-up period of 2–4.5 years). In addition to our experience of the cemented versus hybrid THA involving the uncemented Wagner femoral component, we have determined positive indications for the untreated and severely distorted anatomy of bilateral CDH for which surgical interventions for reconstruction were not recommended before.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Phosphate regulon ; RNA polymerase ; σ70 ; Region 4.2 ; PhoB
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Transcription of the genes belonging to the phosphate (pho) regulon inEscherichia coli requires the specific activator protein PhoB, in addition to RNA polymerase containing the major sigma factor, σ70, which is encoded byrpoD. We previously isolated two mutant σ70s(D570G and E575K) that were specifically defective in transcribing thepho genes. The mutated sites were located near and within the first helix of the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of region 4.2 of σ70. To study further the role of the first helix of the HTH motif of σ70 in transcriptional activation by PhoB, we made a series ofrpoD mutations that alter the motif and purified the mutant σ70 proteins. RNA polymerases containing the mutant σ70s Y571A, T572L, V576T, K578E and F580V showed reduced in vitro transcription from thepstS promoter, a representativepho promoter, in the presence of PhoB, whereas RNA polymerase containing another mutant σ70 (E574 K) showed enhanced transcription from the promoter. Transcription from the activator-independenttac promoter and thepBR-P4 promoter, which is independent of PhoB and requires cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) for transcription, was affected at most only marginally by these σ70 mutations. These results provide further evidence that the first helix plays an important role in the specific interaction between RNA polymerase and PhoB protein bound to thepho promoters in transcriptional activation.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 6185-6187 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ferromagnetic Fe or Co was electrodeposited into the pores in aluminum anodic oxide film to produce a magnetic anodic film, and the effects of magnetic field during electrodeposition on the deposition characteristics of the metals and coercivity of the produced anodic film were investigated. Fe was electrodeposited into the pores in anodic film using a mixed solution (pH=3.8) of FeSO4(NH4)SO4.6H2O (0.20 mol/l) and H3BO4 (0.48 mol/l) at 20 °C with constant applied voltage of 10 V, and Co using a mixed solution (pH=4.5) of CoSO4,7H2O (0.10 mol/l) and H3BO4 (0.48 mol/l). It has been found that for the Fe-deposited anodic film the coercivity increased with increasing length of deposited Fe particles and decreased with increasing diameter (or porosity). The application of magnetic field during electrodeposition of Fe had little influence on the coercivity of the anodic film. For the Co-deposited anodic film the coercivity increased with increasing length of deposited Fe particles and increased unexpectedly with increasing diameter. The perpendicular coercivity of the Co-deposited anodic film was significantly increased by the application of magnetic field during the electrodeposition. The unexpected coercivity increase with diameter and the increase of the perpendicular coercivity of Co-deposited film by the application of magnetic field were closely related to the preferred orientation of Co crystals in the anodic film. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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