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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Ischemia ; GABA ; Autoradiography ; Microdialysis ; In vitro electrophysiology ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have investigated the GABAergic system in rat hippocampus at 1 hour and up to 21 days following 20 min of global cerebral ischemia. Distribution of 3H-GABA (in excess of unlabeled baclofen) and 3H-Ro-15-1788 (benzodiazepine antagonist) binding sites in hippocampus was studied utilizing quantitative autoradiography. The 3H-GABA binding was unchanged (p〉 0.01) after ischemia, whereas the 3H-Ro-15-1788 binding decreased significantly (p〈 0.01) in all hippocampal subfields 1–21 days after ischemia. Using microdialysis in CA1, we found that K+-stimulated GABA release at 1 hour and 1 day after ischemia was unchanged (p〉 0.01) in comparison to preischemic controls. Electrophysiological recordings were made from CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from rats sacrificed 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days after ischemia. Field potentials evoked by stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals showed no differences (p 〉 0.01) from those taken from controls. Postischemic intracellular recordings from the CA1 pyramidal cells showed that fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were readily evoked on orthodromic stimulation. Together with our previous morphological results, demonstrating survival of hippocampal interneurons following ischemia, we conclude that hippocampal GABAergic interneurons preserve their inhibitory potential in the period preceding delayed CA1 pyramidal cell death. This conclusion taken together with the observation that postischemic 3H-Ro-15-1788 binding in hippocampus declined, suggest that benzodiazepines (by increasing the receptor affinity), GABA analogs, and GABA uptake inhibitors may be usefull in the treatment of ischemic CA1 pyramidal cell death in the rat.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1068
    Keywords: Infection ; Gentamicin beads ; Osteomyelitis ; Infection ; Billes de ciment à la gentamicine ; Ostéite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé 561 dossiers d'infection de l'appareil locomoteur avec utilisation de billes de ciment acrylique à la gentamicine ont été étudiés. L'assèchement de l'infection a été obtenue dans 85 % des cas. Le taux de récidive est de 10 % dans la première année post-opératoire, et de 20 % avec un recul de 10 ans. Aucune complication allergique ou toxique liée à la gentamicine n'a été notée. Les billes de ciment acrylique additionnées de gentamicine peuvent être utilisées dans le traitement des infections de l'appareil locomoteur, en complément du débridement chirurgical qui reste le geste primordial. Elles permettent d'obtenir des concentrations élevées d'antibiotiques in situ sans risque de toxicité générale, et ainsi d'éviter ou d'alléger l'antibiothérapie générale associée, alors que les inconvénients liés à leur emploi paraissent mineurs.
    Notes: Abstract We studied 561 cases of osteoarticular and soft-tissue infections treated with gentamicin-PMMA-beads. Healing of the infection occurred in 85% of cases. Recurrence was observed in 10% of cases after 1 year and 20% after 10 years. No allergic or toxic complications were seen due to the gentamicin. The PMMA-beads loaded with gentamicin may be used in the treatment of osteoarticular and soft-tissue infection in addition to surgical debridement, which is the main therapeutic step. They give high tissue antibiotic concentration without risk of general toxicity, and in this way avoid or diminish the associated systemic antibiotherapy, while the disadvantages related to their use seem minor.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-5411
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The4He( $$\vec d$$ ,pα)n cross section, vector and tensor analyzing-power data with 12 and 17 MeV deuterons at kinematic conditions including proton-alpha quasifree scattering, neutron-alpha and proton-alpha final-state interactions, as well as collinearity, are compared with the predictions of the three-body model using different nucleon-alpha and neutron-proton forces. In general, better two-body potentials give a better fit to the data, except for the vector analyzing-power data. The roles of the impulse and multiple-scattering amplitudes are studied to understand the sensitivity to two-body potentials and to understand the reason for the successes and the failures of the model.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Sucrose ; carbohydrate ; diabetic diet ; metabolic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of regularly eating sucrose were studied in 23 diabetic patients, 12 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and 11 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent), with differing degrees of glycaemic control. Two diets, each lasting 6 weeks, were compared in a randomised cross-over study. Both diets were high in fibre and low in fat. In one diet 45 g of complex carbohydrate was replaced by 45 g of sucrose taken at mealtimes. There were no significant biochemical differences between the two diets in either Type 1 or Type 2 patients. In Type 1 patients the mean (±SEM) fasting plasma glucose was 10.5 (1.8) mmol/1 on the control diet and 10.3 (1.5) mmol/1 on sucrose. In Type 2 patients the levels were 9.1 (0.8) mmol/1 and 8.9 (0.8) mmol/l respectively. Glycosylated haemoglobin for the Type 1 patients was 9.9% on control and 10.3% on sucrose; for Type 2 patients the figures were 9.3% and 9.0% respectively. There were no differences in mean daily plasma glucose levels or diurnal glucose profiles. Cholesterol (total and in lipoprotein fractions) was unchanged, as were diurnal triglyceride profiles and plasma insulin profiles in the Type 2 patients. There were no changes in medication or body weight. We conclude that a moderate amount of sucrose taken daily at mealtimes does not cause deterioration in metabolic control in diabetic patients following a high fibre/low fat diet.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Methylaplysinopsin is an indolyl-methylene derivative of creatinine which was isolated from a sponge collected on the Great Barrier Reef.2. It is a potent inhibitor of tetrabenazine-induced responses in rats and mice and appears to act through several mechanisms, each of which enhances central serotonergic function.3.As a reversible inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase (MAO) methylaplysinopsin is relatively short-acting and has a Ki of 0.2 μmol/l when serotonin is the substrate used.4.Methylaplysinopsin (10-4 mol/1) also releases [3H]-serotonin from prelabelled synaptosomes, but has little effect on release of [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA) from a similar preparation.5. In blocking uptake of [3H]-serotonin into cerebral cortical synaptosomes, methylaplysinopsin has a potency similar to that of imipramine (Ki=2 × 10-7 mol/1 cf. 5 × 10-7 mol/1), but it is considerably less potent in blocking [3H]-NA uptake.6. Methylaplysinopsin is a weak displacer of [3H]-serotonin specific binding (IC50= 160 μmol/l for hippocampal membrane preparations and 66 μmol/1 for crude homogenates of rat brain).7.Thus, methylaplysinopsin has effects on various aspects of serotonergic function. Whilst some of these effects are weak, they appear relatively selective for this neurochemical system.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Despite widespread use of the writhing response to phenylbenzoquinone or acetic acid injection in mice as a screen for analgesic activity, possible mediators of this response remain unidentified.In the present experiments both in vivo and in vitro techniques have been used in an attempt to identify these mediators.Acetic acid-induced writhing was unaffected by pretreatment with mepyramine, methysergide, disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine.Phenylbenzoquinone-induced writhing was partially blocked by pretreatment with mepyramine or other antihistamines.Using guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat fundus preparations as in vitro assay systems, no significant differences were detected in histamine, serotonin, or prostaglandin content of peritoneal fluid from writhing and control mice.Acetylcholine levels were at the limit of detection in these samples, and there was no evidence of kinin release.Thus the mediators involved in the writhing response remain undefined.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Melanocytic dendrites consist of a central core of microtubules and a subcortical actin network. Several studies provide arguments supporting the hypothesis that actin-based and microtubule-based motor proteins co-operate in melanosome transport towards the dendrite tips. Melanosomes can move bidirectionally along microtubules in vitro, and in murine melanocytes, they move towards the cell periphery and back again. Microtubules have a fast-growing plus end  and a slow-growing minus end . Microtubule-associated motor proteins move unidirectionally either towards the plus or towards the minus end. However, it is not known which motor protein is responsible for minus end-directed movement of melanosomes.  Objectives We aimed to investigate the in vitro expression of the minus end-directed motor protein cytoplasmic dynein in normal human epidermal melanocytes, keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.  Methods Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis were used. In addition, an attempt to obtain insight into the subcellular localization of cytoplasmic dynein, immunofluorescence studies and immunogold electron microscopic studies were performed.  Results The three different forms of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain were expressed in all studied skin cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed similar punctate distributions for dynein heavy chain 1 and dynein heavy chain 2 in melanocytes, with accentuation in the perinuclear area and dendrite tips. Double labelling with a melanosome marker showed apparent co-localization of both dynein heavy chains 1 and 2 with melanosomes in the perinuclear area and dendrite tips. For the dynein intermediate chain of 74 kDa, again a punctate staining pattern was seen with intense centrosomal staining. A close association of dynein intermediate chain 74 and α-tubulin with the melanosome surface was detected using immunogold electron microscopy.  Conclusions The colocalization of different subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein complex with melanosomes is consistent with the hypothesis that this motor protein supports minus end-directed melanosome movement along microtubules.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and tumour-induced angiogenesis appear to be increased in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In other cancers, COX-2 is a pro-angiogenic factor. The association between angiogenesis and COX-2 has not been studied in skin cancer.Objectives  To assess the onset of increased COX-2 expression and angiogenesis in the multistage carcinogenesis of SCC as well as the correlation between those two parameters.Patients/methods  We performed a retrospective paired immunohistochemical analysis of normal skin, actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and SCC among 35 individuals. Specimens were considered COX-2 immunopositive when 5% or more of the tumour cells showed clear evidence of immunostaining. To quantify active angiogenesis, we used a Ki-67–CD34 double-labelling immunohistochemical stain and calculated the fraction of proliferating endothelial cells. The Chalkley method was used to determine the microvessel density. To detect hypoxia, a carboanhydrase IX immunostain was used.Results  Compared with normal epidermis (0%), AK (31%), BD (22%) and SCC (40%) were significantly more likely to be COX-2 immunopositive (P 〈 0·01). The fraction of proliferating endothelial cells and the Chalkley scores paralleled multistage carcinogenesis (P 〈 0·05 between different stages). COX-2 immunopositivity was fairly correlated with hypoxia and higher proliferating endothelial cell fractions but not with Chalkley counts.Conclusions  Induction of COX-2 expression and angiogenesis are both early events in the development of SCC. In addition to ultraviolet light, hypoxia and COX-2 may be involved in skin tumour angiogenesis.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 149 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The importance of health economics (the application of economics to healthcare and medicine) has grown significantly in recent years as the need to maximize the use of limited healthcare resources has increased. The role of pharmacoeconomics (the application of health economics to pharmaceuticals) is to provide a method that evaluates outcomes and costs of treatment at the same time, thus providing an aid to better decision-making. However, there remains some uncertainty within the medical community about the usefulness of pharmacoeconomic data. Reasons for this include a poor understanding of the purpose and outcome of pharmacoeconomic studies, inconsistent use of terminology, and a perception that freedom of choice of prescriptions is restricted. To optimize the medical management of patients with severe onychomycosis, two pharmacoeconomic evaluations of amorolfine were undertaken. In a comparison of topical amorolfine + oral terbinafine vs. oral terbinafine alone, treatment with the topical/oral combination for a period of up to 12 weeks resulted in an improved outcome compared with the oral drug alone. A second study with topical amorolfine + oral itraconazole showed that treatment for a period of 6 weeks was the preferred cost-effective treatment option. While combination therapy might seem to be a more costly option, pharmacoeconomic studies have clearly shown that treatment of onychomycosis with amorolfine, in combination with either oral terbinafine or oral itraconazole, is both cost-saving and cost-effective compared with oral treatment alone.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a rare distinct entity that usually presents as asymptomatic erythematous papules that disappear spontaneously in 1–3 weeks. However, its appearance may be polymorphic, pruritic, recurrent or even chronic as is described in this case. The histological combination of neutrophilic infiltration in and necrosis of the eccrine secretory gland epithelium is highly characteristic for NEH. It typically occurs in patients receiving chemotherapeutic drugs for malignancies, but other associations have also been reported. To our knowledge, we report the first case of NEH in a patient with Behçet's disease (BD). Cutaneous manifestations of BD, an inflammatory systemic disorder of unknown origin, include neutrophilic dermatoses such as Sweet's syndrome and pyoderma gangrenosum, although these are unusual in BD. NEH could be another neutrophilic dermatosis related to BD. This observation suggests that NEH is not strictly related to chemotherapeutic drugs and malignancies. It appears to be a reactive dermatosis associated with other factors as well, including BD. Treatment was successful with dapsone 100 mg daily.
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