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  • 11
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The zoospore and meiospore of the aquatic phycomyceteCatenaria anguillulae (Phycomycetes, Blastocladiales, Catenariaceae) have a nuclear cap enclosing the cellular ribosomes within a double membrane, and a side body complex which is very similar to that observed in zoospores ofBlastocladiella andCoelomomyces and is structurally related to the side body complex observed in spores ofAllomyces. The structural organization of the side body complex and striated rootlet is analyzed from serial sections. The meiospore also contains an array of flattened cisternae which are in direct contact with, and appear to be derived from, the outer nuclear membrane and the backing membrane of the side body complex. The structural organization of the zoospore and meiospore ofC. anguillulae is compared to and contrasted with the structural organization observed in spores of members of theChytridiales, Blastocladiales, Monoblepharidales, andHarpochytriales. It is concluded that the structural organization of the spores of theBlastocladiales, Monoblepharidales, andHarpochytriales is similar, and affinities in spore organization can be found in some members of theChytridiales.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Fungus ; Parasite ; Potato ; Potato wart disease ; Synchytrium ; Zoosporangium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An ultrastructural study of zoosporangium development ofSynchytrium, endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc. is presented. Emphasis is placed on the location of the parasitic fungal thallus in the potato host cell, on the specific location of organelles in relation to the developing zoosporangial wall, and on the host cell reaction to the fungal infection. The cytoplasmic organization of the individual sporangia after division of the zoosporangium into a sorus of sporangia is characterized by numerous similarly sized nuclei, well developed dictyosomes, and the presence of many lipid bodies of variable size. Cytoplasmic microtubules are observed to flare out from the functional kinetosome both before and after zoospore cleavage. The ultrastructural details of zoosporangium development are used to revaluate the life cycle ofS. endobioticum as described from light microscopic observations made early in the century (Curtis 1921;Köhler 1923, 1932;Percival 1910).
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 106 (1981), S. 69-82 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Fungus ; Parasite ; Potato wart disease ; Resting sporangia ; Synchytrium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The cytoplasmic organization of the long-lived, thick walled resting stage of the sporangium ofSynchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc. is described. The cytoplasm of the resting sporangium contains a large number of closely packed lipid bodies and irregular electron dense bodies, which are interspaced with fine channels of cytoplasm. These ultrastructural observations are discussed in relation to the hypothesis ofBally (1912) andCurtis (1921) that zoospore primordia are already present during the resting stage. It is shown that the “zoospore primordium” is actually a lipid body and an osmiophilic body and the strands postulated to connect the individual “zoospore primordia” are actually the fine channels of cytoplasm. A new inner wall layer is laid down prior to the start of the germination. It is this wall layer which will protrude to form the vesicle in which sporogenesis takes place. The germination process observed, protrusion of a vesicle through a crack in the sporangial wall, the migration of the sporangial content into the vesicle, and the formation of a single, membrane-bound sporangium within this vesicle, is in full agreement with the recent light microscopic studies ofSharma andCammack (1976). These observations support the transfer ofS. endobioticum from the subgenusMesochytrium to the subgenusMicrosynchytrium (bothsensu Karling 1964). A major objective of the study, to obtain ultrastructural evidence for the location of the meiotic divisions in the life cycle, was not fulfilled. Three different fungi were observed to parasitize the resting sporangium ofS. endobioticum. These infections are discussed in relation to other mycoparasites of plant pathogenic fungi. The possibility of using a mycoparasite for the biological control of potato wart disease is considered to be without practical relevance.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Fungus ; Parasite ; Potato ; Potato wart disease ; Resting sporangium ; Synchytrium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An ultrastructural study of the development of the resting sporangium ofSynchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc. infecting potato cells is presented. The resting sporangium is found to have a single large, centrally placed nucleus with a prominent nucleolus through its entirein situ development. The cytoplasmic organization of the resting sporangium is further characterized by numerous membrane-bound lipid bodies and osmiophilic bodies. The latter have a characteristic sieve-like appearance, probably because certain storage components have been extracted during preparation for electron microscopy. Because of the similar location and appearance of these osmiophilic bodies it is suggested that they are identical to what has earlier (based on light microscopy) been described as chromatin granules; and the ultrastructural studies presented here show that “nucleolar discharge” which was described from light microscopic observations as leading to chromatin granules in the cytoplasm, and finally forming the nuclei of the zoospores (bally 1912,curtis 1921,percival 1910) simply does not occur. The appearance of dense fibrillar-like structures on the sporangial surface at an early stage of resting sporangium development ultrastructurally distinguishes the resting sporangium from the zoosporangium. The development of the layered portion of the thick sporangial wall is shown to be due to the fusion of vacuoles containing pre-made wall fibrils with the cell membrane. It is suggested that the inner compact wall layer which is essentially substructureless is formed by the membrane itself. The characteristic “wings” of the matureS. endobioticum resting sporangium originate from the potato host cell wall. Remnants of host cell organelles in the outermost layer of the resting sporangium wall show that degradation of the host cell cytoplasm contributes to wall formation of the parasite.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Fungus ; Physoderma ; Rhizomycelium ; Sporangium development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The endobiotic thallus ofPhysoderma maydis is characterized by the presence of an extremely fine rhizomycelium which passes through the host cell wall, allowing the spread of the disease, and irregularly shaped “turbinate cells”, which may be septate or nonseptate and which are in close association with developing resting sporangia. The formation of the resting sporangium wall is first seen as localized depositions on the rounded surface of the sporangium and only later on the flattened surface of the sporangium which will form the operculum. The substructure of the resting sporangium wall is typical for members of theBlastocladiales. The resting sporangium is contiguous with the rhizomycelium during development and is finally sealed-off from the rhizomycelium by a further deposition of wall material. After the sealing-off of the resting sporangium from the rhizomycelium the content of the sporangium is compartmentalized and the two inner wall layers are deposited. The centre of the sporangium is filled with an electron dense accretion. At the periphery of the sporangium is a layer of lipid bodies. Between the lipid bodies and the central electron dense accretion is a thin layer of cytoplasm which contains the nuclei. The outer surface of the resting sporangium is smooth.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 119 (1984), S. 178-187 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Sclerospora ; Downy mildew ; Parasite ultrastructure ; Pearl millet
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cleavage of the zoosporangial cytoplasm ofSclerospora graminicola, the causal agent of pearl millet downy mildew, is by means of the fusion of cleavage vesicles and vesicles containing the extruded axoneme with the cell membrane. This type of zoosporogenesis linksS. graminicola to other Peronosporalean species, and is very similar to that seen for all uniflagellate species examined to date, while it separates it from species of theSaprolegniales where zoosporogenesis is brought about by the expansion of the central vacuole, or where the plasmalemma alone is used. The origin of the cleavage vesicles appears to be from the dictyosomes and not from the finger-print bodies which are rapidly formed in large numbers after axoneme formation and after the cleavage. vesicles have started to appear in the cytoplasm.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 97 (1978), S. 275-290 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The meiospore ofPhysoderma maydis (Phycomycetes, Chytridiales, Physodermataceae) has a nuclear cap enclosing the cellular ribosomes within a double membrane, and double membranes traversing the nuclear cap. Aggregates of ribosomes not incorporated into the nuclear cap are also enclosed by double membranes. A vesicular network is observed in the anterior portion of the spore in direct connection with the nuclear cap membrane and with a stacked parallel array of membranes, which itself is connected with the nuclear cap membrane. The meiospore ofP. maydis contains a side body complex of the type observed in spores of theBlastocladiales. Vesicles enclose the side body complex and these vesicles are connected to the nuclear cap membrane and the nuclear envelope, and form a network which partially encloses the kinetosomal apparatus. The nuclear cap membrane, stacked array of membranes, and the vesicles which surround the side body complex and the kinetosomal apparatus contain an electron-dense amorphous material. On the basis of their ultrastructural appearance, these membranes are interpreted as part of a highly divided microbody. The ultrastructural organization of the meiospore ofP. maydis is compared to the structural organization observed in spores of theChytridiales, Blastocladiales, Monoblepharidales, andHarpochytriales. It is concluded that the structural organization of the meiospores ofP. maydis is the same as observed for members of theBlastocladiales, and it is suggested that thePhysodermataceae should be transferred from theChytridiales to theBlastocladiales.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A novel design for an airborne NOy converter was implemented, characterized in the laboratory, and used extensively for in situ tropospheric and stratospheric measurements of total reactive nitrogen (NOy). During field deployments, the converter is mounted outside the aircraft fuselage, avoiding the need for an inlet line. In flight, the converter can be calibrated by the addition of standard gases close to the sample inlet, compensating for any changes in the instrument sensitivity caused by changing operating conditions. The system has been used successfully during several Stratosphere Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements campaigns in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen. The detection limit of the system is approximately 100 pptv for 10 s integrated data (2σ). The precision, deduced from the reproducibility of the in-flight calibrations, is 7% and the accuracy is about 30%. Laboratory studies demonstrate that interference from HCN, NH3, and CH3CN is negligible for background conditions. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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