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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Catharanthus roseus cells were grown at various aeration rates using normal or CO2-enriched air. Kinetic data showed a detrimental effect of the increase of the gassing rate on the growth characteristics due to CO2 stripping. When the CO2 partial pressure in the culture was maintained at a constant level of 20 mbar, better growth and enhanced conversion yields were obtained.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Catharanthus roseus cells were grown at various aeration rates using normal or CO2-enriched air. Kinetic data showed a detrimental effect of the increase of the gassing rate on the growth characteristics due to CO2 stripping. When the CO2 partial pressure in the culture was maintained at a constant level of 20 mbar, better growth and enhanced conversion yields were obtained.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Growth of a lactic streptococcus was studied in continuous cultures, under various conditions of medium richness, without carbon source limitation, and with a large range of dilution rates. Increasing the concentrations of growth factors and protein nitrogen sources resulted in increased volumetric productivities of biomass and lactic acid with maximum values in the 0.3–0.4 h−1 dilution rate range. Growth was shown to be dependent on both the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and the availability of certain nutrients, as has previously been shown for batch cultures.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Growth, substrate utilization and product formation were studied in batch cultures of a Leuconostoc oenos strain. The effect of various culture conditions, i.e. pH-control at different values and various initial concentrations of malate and glucose, on growth and metabolism were investigated. Addition of malate resulted in a marked stimulation of growth, with only a slight increase in final biomass but a high conversion yield of glucose. Under pH control this stimulation was much greater than could be accounted for from changes in pH profile resulting from malate utilization. The specific rate of malate utilization was maximal at pH 4.0 whereas the specific rate of glucose consumption was highest at pH 5.5. During co-metabolism of malic acid and glucose, substrate utilization and product formation agreed with the stoichiometric relationships of the malo-lactic reaction and the heterolactic fermentation of glucose.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of culture conditions, especially nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratio and temperature, on acyl lipid profiles in the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis NRRL Y 1091 have been investigated. Cultivation of the microorganism under N-limited conditions (N/C 〈 0.14 g/g) resulted in enhanced fatty acid (FA) cell content but a reduced relative amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The maximal FA productivity was obtained for a 0.025 N/C ratio resulting from the arrangement between the specific rate of FA synthesis and the concentration of lipid-free biomass. Under nitrogen-non-limiting conditions, cells grown at lower temperatures had a higher PUFA content and the maximal productivity of α-linolenic acid was obtained by shifting the temperature of the culture from 30° C to 25° C.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract An unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of the oleaginous yeast Apiotrichum curvatum, named UfaM3, blocked in the conversion of stearic to oleic acid was cultivated in single-stage continuous culture. The influence of consumed carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N ratios, g g−1) obtained at various dilution rates (D) on fatty acid (FA) accumulation and its profiles were studied. In continuous culture in N-limited medium a maximum FA accumulation of 45.6% (g g−1 of dry biomass) was obtained at an optimal D of 0.049 h−1, recording an efficiency of substrate conversion of 0.48 g g−1 and 0.22 g g−1 for biomass and lipids, respectively. The quality of lipid approached cocoa butter at an optimal C/N ratio of between 20 and 30. The C/N ratio in the incoming medium was 38.5 g g−1 with 30 g l−1 of glucose and both C and N sources were completely consumed at a critical D of ≤ 0.07 h−1. The stability of the mutant was demonstrated in the steady-state conditions of the chemostat with regard to the FA composition of its lipids.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The production of organic acids has been tested with bacterial flora selected from a municipal sludge digestor. In order to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which glucose is converted to volatile fatty acids, the examination of non-methanogenic bacteria was attempted. Both lactate-producers and lactate-utilizers were found among these bacteria. When mixed isolates were used as the inoculum, the accumulation of lactic acid and its further conversion to propionic and butyric acids was demonstrated at a carbon conversion rate of about 0.75. It is therefore suggested that this metabolic sequence may occur as a normal process in acidogenic fermentation, which is the first step in anaerobic digestion.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary In batch cultures of Streptococcus cremoris growth parameters, especially the specific growth rate and its alteration during time-courses of fermentation, were found to be dependent on the culture conditions, in particular the inoculum size and medium composition. It was demonstrated that growth was subject to two main factors, inhibition by lactic acid and limitation by nutritional compounds, the first effect being strongly dependent on medium composition. The tolerance of the strain towards lactic acid was characterized, and critical values of the end-product were related to the concentration of yeast extract and bactotryptone in the medium. After taking into consideration the inhibitory effect of lactic acid, the level of nutritional limitation accounted for the change in specific growth rate during time courses of the culture.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) or iron (Fe) limitations on lipid and especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) synthesis in the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis have been investigated. Exhaustion of the limiting element in the medium resulted in an enhancement of both the fatty acid cell content (FA/X) and the corresponding productivity. Except for Fe-limited media, lipid accumulation was always coupled with an increase in the yield of ALA synthesis, whereas in all the limiting conditions the productivity of ALA declined. Kinetic investigations showed that this decline resulted from a sharp decrease in the specific rates of ALA synthesis associated with slowing down of growth. A comparative study showed that the highest yields and specific rates of fatty acid and ALA synthesis were induced by P-limitation early in the lipid accumulation phase. However, above a FA/X of 15%, N-limiting conditions become more attractive for producing lipids. During P-limited growth a down-shift of temperature from 30° C to 25° C was shown ao reduce the range of FA/X values at which the specific rate of fatty acid synthesis was maximal but without any other effect on fatty acid formation. In contrast, the decreased temperature resulted in enhanced ALA production by maintaining the specific rate of synthesis near to the maximal value of 3.6 mg g X −1 h−1, where X* is free fatty acid biomass, and increased the corresponding yield by a factor of up to three.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Following our investigations on food additive production through fermentation, we studied properties of red pigments secreted by Monascus ruber in submerged culture, using ethanol and glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources. After extraction and purification, these colorants were suspended in water for evaluation. The stability of the extract was tested both in solution and when incorporated into meat products (sausage and pâté). The pigments added to sausage or pate remained stable when stored for 3 mo at 4°C; their stability was between 92 and 98%. Sensory tests revealed that Monascus pigments could replace some traditional food additives such as nitrite salts or cochineal.
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