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  • 11
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Snap beans were collected from nine lots at five wholesale warehouses over a 2 day period. The lots were separated into three groups based on wholesale price — high (〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:01469428:JFQ77:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉$15.35/bu), intermediate ($13.35–$14.90/bu), and low (〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:01469428:JFQ77:les" location="les.gif"/〉$13.00/bu). Lots were analyzed for quality by chemical, physical and sensory methods to determine those quality factors most closely associated with the price of fresh beans at the wholesale level. Textural properties differentiated between beans in low and intermediate price groups. Appearance factors were more important than texture in distinguishing between beans of the high and intermediate price groups.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Techniques for flavor and odor evaluation of vegetable oils are needed as much as in previous years, particularly as new extraction and processing changes evolve. A new ASTM Standard Practice for Sensory Evaluation of Edible Vegetable Oils (E1627) was recently approved. Using this new standard, sensory profiles of four different freshly processed vegetable oils (canola, cottonseed, peanut and soybean) were determined using a descriptive panel. Each oil had a color which was significantly different from the other oils (P ≤ 0.05). All oils had a bland odor and flavor, although some had hydrogenat-ed and slightly nutty flavor and odor characteristics. Cottonseed oil had the highest (P ≤ 0.05) hydrogenated odor and flavor and waxy flavor ratings, while canola oil had the highest (P ≤ 0.05) fishy odor and flavor ratings. Peanut oil was rated highest (P ≤ 0.05) for buttery odor and lowest for beany and cardboard odor. Viscosities are similar, but mouthcoating was slightly different (P ≤ 0.05) among samples with cottonseed oil having the highest score.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food quality 10 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to develop an imitation cheese spread from peanut paste. Sensory scores for flavor, color, overall acceptability and purchase intention by laboratory and consumer-type panels using magnitude estimation scaling were determined. Color measurements (L, a, b) were obtained using a Hunterlab Color Difference Meter. Results indicate that the preferred level of cheese flavor was 1%. No preference for color was indicated by the consumer panel, however, the laboratory panel liked the sample containing 0.6% Annato concentrate. Flavor preference scores correlated with acceptability and purchase intention for both panels. Contour maps prepared from response surface analysis data shows the samples with high levels of color were perceived as having a stronger flavor.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) are a nutritious legume, but their consumption in the U.S. is limited by the lack of convenience and innovative forms of use. Akara is a popular West African food made from deep-fat fried cowpea paste and has potential for extending the use of dry cowpeas in U.S. markets. Acceptance tests involving 122 Georgia teenagers were conducted to assess their response to akara. Akara made from decorticated seeds was more acceptable than akara made from nondecorticated seeds. Akara was most acceptable to males, blacks, and to those who had completed nine or more grades in school. The product was more likely to be consumed at a restaurant or cafeteria than at home or at a fast food establishment. These findings indicate that akara has potential for success in the fried food market and could be targeted toward certain segments of the teenage population.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of muscle foods 8 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In a study of marketing opportunities for fresh dark chicken meat, focus group participants (n=34) identified the most important attributes of chicken products and their packaging. Acceptance of chicken ground through various size plates (2.4, 4.7 and 9.4 mm) and containing various concentrations (0, 1 and 2%) of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was evaluated by consumers (n=73). STPP concentration was not a significant variable for any of the sensory attributes. Texture ratings increased significantly with grind size. Yield increased with increasing concentration at the 2.4 mm grind size of STPP. A simulated supermarket setting test was conducted to verify findings from a mailed survey (n=115) and actual purchase behavior by consumers (n=121). A calculated desirability index indicated a ranked preference to be: breasts 〉 kabobs 〉 stir-fry 〉 boneless, skinless thighs 〉 scallopini 〉 bone-in, skin-on thighs 〉 ground chicken. The lack of acceptance of ground chicken by consumers suggests that future emphasis should be focused on other dark chicken meat products.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Precooked, small-portion, microwave-reheatable steaks were processed from three grades (US Choice, US Select+, and US Select-) of top round beef. Marinated/tenderized samples were compared to nonmarinated/nontenderized controls from each grade. Untrained consumers (n=102) rated the sensory attributes, overall acceptability, and willingness to purchase the steaks at various settings (fast food, restaurant/cafeteria, supermarket). Marination and tenderization improved the sensory attributes, overall acceptability, and consumers' willingness to purchase the steaks, regardless of the grade from which they were prepared. Marinated/tenderized steaks from the US Select grade were more acceptable than nonmarinated/nontenderized steaks from the US Choice grade. Marinated/tenderized steaks from each grade required less force and energy to cut, contained about 3% more moisture and 0.5% less fat, and had more cooking loss than their control counterparts. However, consumers rated the marinated/tenderized products as being more tender, juicy, flavorful and more acceptable overall than controls.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A comparison of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and cluster analysis as statistical methods for selecting members of a descriptive panel was conducted. Using 150–mm unstructured line scales, 10 panelists evaluated the performance in coffee of 2 whiteners on 14 sensory attributes. Factor analysis showed that 5 factors were adequate to model the data. The sensory ballot used had a reliability coefficient omega (Ω) equal to 0.93. One-way ANOVA and cluster analysis resulted in 2 different panels consisting of 9 judges each. Means and standard deviations of the scores showed that greater variability among panelists’ ratings resulted when the panel was selected using one-way ANOVA than when cluster analysis was used.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of sensory studies 5 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Peanut beverages were prepared and homogenized at 2000, 4000, and 6000 psi and processed at 100°C for 10, 15, and 20 min and at 121°C for 5, 10, and 15 min. Sensory analysis, gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, and viscosity measurements were performed on the products. Sulfur aromatic was found sufficient to discriminate between samples processed at 100°C whereas sulfur aromatic, cooked peanut flavor, and bitterness provided the most efficient combination for discriminating between samples processed at 121°C. Processing time had a more significant effect on the sensory attributes of products. Optimum conditions for processing were found to be at homogenization pressure 〉 3100 psi and process time 〉 16 min at a processing temperature of 100°C. No sensory characteristic of the peanut beverage correlated with the instrumental analyses done.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of sensory studies 20 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Response surface methodology was used to profile and characterize formulations of chocolate peanut spread. A constrained mixture design for 36 different formulations with varying peanut (P), chocolate (C) and sugar (S) was used. A processing variable, roast (R), was included where peanuts were roasted to light, medium and dark levels. A descriptive panel (n = 10) identified and rated 24 attributes, using 150-mm unstructured line scales. Regression analysis was performed and models were reduced. Models having R2 〉 0.70 were selected for prediction. Contour maps were constructed to: (1) visualize the effects of mixture components and roasting level and (2) characterize optimum formulations at light, medium and dark, which were determined as (30–49% P, 23–40% C and 21–31% S); (29–65% P, 0.9–41% C and 17–36% S) and (27–56% P, 19–45% C and 18–35% S), respectively, adding up to 100% of the mixture. Analyses of optimum and nonoptimum formulations and significant differences were not found between predicted and observed values for most attributes.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Roasted peanuts were stored at 20 treatment combinations of water activities (0.33, 0.44, 0.54, 0.67, 0.75) and temperatures (23, 30, 35, 40C), and evaluated after storing for 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 110% of estimated shelf life, ranging from 0 to 91 days. Regression models indicated that increasing storage time and storage water activity resulted in decreasing crispness, crunchiness, hardness, roasted peanutty, sweet aromatic, salty, bitter and sweet attributes and increasing fracturability, chewiness, tooth packing and cardboard flavor. Storage temperature did not contribute to regression models of textural properties of roasted peanuts. Increasing storage temperature resulted in a faster rate of decrease for roasted peanutty and faster rate of increase of cardboard flavor. Roasted peanuts stored between 0.33 and 0.41 a w at 23C are predicted to have the least change in sensory properties after 68 and 91 days respectively.
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