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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Ceftazidime ; Cyclosporin-A and lack of Nephrotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ceftazidime was used as monotherapy for 30 febrile episodes in 28 patients, who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and who were treated concomitantly with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin-A. Ceftazidime did not enhance the well established nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin-A as measured by serum creatinine levels or creatinine clearnace. Although an increasing number of Gram-positive infections in these patients warrants vigilance, ceftazidime as initial empirical monotherapy proved to be successful in 95% of all febrile post-transplantation patients. All Gram-negative and 69% of the Grampositive infections were cured with ceftazidime alone. The overall clinical cure rate was 72%, with microbiological clearance in 63%. This compares favourably with aminoglycoside containing schedules and avoids the aminoglycoside associated nephrotoxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Dictyostelium discoideum ; extracellular matrix ; cellulose ; cell-ECM interactions ; slime ; glycoproteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this review, we detail the current understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the migratory slug phase of the cellular slime mould,Dictyostelium discoideum. We describe some structural and non-structural molecules which comprise the ECM, and how these molecules reflect both plant and animal ECM systems. We also describe zones of the multicellular slug that are known to make ECM components, including the role of the prestalk cells and the slug epithelium-like layer. Finally, we review the contributions of studies on mutant to our understanding of the ECM ofD. discoideum, and relate this to differentiation and development in more complex eukaryotic systems.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 44 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Misplacement of a tracheal tube in the oesophagus remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in anaesthesia, despite decades of effort aimed at prevention, or perhaps more importantly, detection, of such an event. We have evaluated a cheap, simple and quick device which relies mainly on the reflation or otherwise of an Ellick's evacuator applied to the supposed ‘tracheal’ tube. Identical tracheal tubes were passed into the trachea and oesophagus of 100 patients; the left and right position in the mouth was chosen at random. The test was conducted by a second anaesthetist, not present at intubation, and unaware of which tube was in the trachea. There were no false positive results and the correct deduction of which was the tracheal tube was reached in 100 tests using this device. Its use is recommended for widespread evaluation as a valuable adjunct to existing methods of detecting misplacement.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the microglial response to progressive dopamine neuron degeneration using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and postmortem analyses in a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model induced by unilateral (right side) intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Degeneration of the dopamine system was monitored by PET imaging of presynaptic dopamine transporters using a specific ligand 11C-CFT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane). Binding of 11C-CFT was markedly reduced in the striatum indicating dopaminergic degeneration. Parallel PET studies of 11C-PK11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3 isoquinoline carboxamide) (specific ligand for activated microglia) showed increased binding in the striatum and substantia nigra indicative of a microglial response. Postmortem immunohistochemical analyses were performed with antibodies against CR3 for microglia/macrophage activation. Using a qualitative postmortem index for microglial activation we found an initially focal, then widespread microglial response at striatal and nigral levels at 4 weeks postlesion. These data support the hypothesis that inflammation is a significant component of progressive dopaminergic degeneration that can be monitored by PET imaging.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background This NHS/HTA-funded study aimed to rank five commonly used antimicrobial therapies for acne in order of their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We also wanted to identify which agents are less likely to promote resistance and those which are effective in patients who harbour high numbers of resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. Methods From surgeries and colleges in the Nottingham and Leeds areas, 649 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were recruited. The two primary outcome measures were patient self-assessment of improvement in overall acne severity and reduction in inflamed lesion count, measured at 18 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included two acne severity scores, assessors' global estimation of improvement, quality of life and utility scores, enumeration of antibiotic resistant propionibacteria, and the incidence of adverse events. Results and Conclusions The most effective treatments (percentage with at least moderate improvement according to patients, mean change in lesion count) were the topical Benzamycin® b.d. (66%, − 27) and its components given separately (topical erythromycin o.d. + 5% benzoyl peroxide o.d.) (63%, − 26), followed by 5% benzoyl peroxide b.d. (60%, − 23). The least effective were oral oxytetracycline (55%, − 18) and minocycline (54%, − 22). The most cost-effective treatment was benzoyl peroxide and least cost-effective was minocycline. In terms of quality of life, benzoyl peroxide moved down the rankings and minocycline moved up. The two topical erythromycin-containing regimens produced the largest reductions and the oral treatments the smallest in the prevalence and population density of cutaneous propionibacteria. Prior bacterial colonisation did not affect outcome in the topical groups. Efficacy of both oral preparations was influenced by tetracycline resistant P. acnes strains. Disclaimer The views and opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Health.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Child 23 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2214
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: In the UK the suicide rate for male adolescents has nearly doubled since 1975. With a similar increase reported from other countries it is not surprising that preventing suicide in young people has become a priority for many health professionals and policy makers. Unfortunately despite advances in our understanding of suicide in young people there are still deficiencies and inconsistencies in our knowledge. There are also problems in transforming our knowledge of suicide and suicidal behaviour in young people and our understanding of theoretically possible approaches to prevention into effective suicide prevention strategies. To increase the chance of preventing suicide in young people we need to be aware of the problems of putting theory into practice and evaluate all interventions that are undertaken to determine their appropriateness and effectiveness.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Abnormally large chromosomes which appear to result from the fusion of 2 chromosomes of the normal karyotype have been found in diploids of Dictyostelium discoideum formed by parasexual fusion of haploid strains HU483 (n=7) and HU245 (n=7). These fusion chromosomes appear to be the products of the tandem translocation of most, if not all, of one acrocentric chromosome to the telomere of a second acrocentric. Thus the chromosome number of the diploids is reduced from the normal 2n=14 to 2n=13 with the formation of an abnormally large acrocentric fusion chromosome. Experimental haploidisation of such diploids results in two types of products, those with a normal 7 chromosome karyotype and those with an abnormal 6 chromosome karyotype which contains the fusion chromosome. Genetic analysis of haploid segregants indicates that linkage groups II and VII are involved in this fusion. Phenotypes of recombinant diploids obtained following mitotic crossing-over establishes that linkage group II is proximal to linkage group VII. Cytological examination of the karyotypes of haploid strains bearing the fusion chromosome suggest that chromosome 2 may correspond to linkage group II and chromosome 3 to linkage group VII. Haploid strains bearing the fusion chromosome grow and develop normally so little or no genetic information can have been lost in the fusion event. While the nature of this event is unknown it may have involved aberrant recombinational DNA repair since the parental haploid strain HU483 bears the radB13 DNA repair mutation.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Brain ; retina ; pericytes ; glucose ; growth rates ; diabetic serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Within the central nervous system, pericyte degeneration in diabetes mellitus occurs only in the retinal microcirculation and is not seen in the brain. This study sought to elucidate differences between bovine retinal and brain pericytes. When pairs of retinal and brain pericytes from individual calves were cultured in vitro, the morphological organisation of early post-confluent retinal pericyte cultures was consistently different from that of brain pericyte cultures. When retinal and brain pericyte cultures were grown to second passage in high or normal glucose medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, brain pericyte cultures grew significantly faster than retinal pericytes in either medium (p〈0.0001). Brain pericytes thus appeared to grow intrinsically faster than retinal pericytes and this effect was largely independent of glucose concentration. Brain pericytes also grew faster than retinal pericytes in high glucose medium containing human diabetic or control serum (p〈0.002). The proliferative effect of serum from diabetic patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy on pericytes grown in high glucose medium was not significantly different from that of control serum. Both brain and retinal pericytes showed variation in their ability to replicate in high concentrations of glucose. The selectivity of pericyte degeneration to the retinal circulation does not appear to be due to changes in the mitogenic activity of diabetic serum for retinal pericytes, but may relate to the intrinsic relative inability of the retinal pericyte to reproliferate in response to the metabolic injury of diabetes mellitus.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 166 (1978), S. 491-497 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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