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  • Key words Dead roots  (1)
  • Polymer and Materials Science  (1)
  • endurance training  (1)
  • 1995-1999  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: Collagen ; cardiac muscle ; endurance training ; hypobaric condition ; mRNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxic condition, physical training and their combination on collagen type I, III and IV gene expression in the ventricles and atria of rat heart. Male rats were assigned to four groups: normobaric sedentary (NS) and trained (NT), and hypobaric sedentary (HS) and trained (HT). Exposure to and treadmill running training in hypobaric condition were carried out in a hypobaric chamber (770–740 mbar, 2250–2550 m). Experimental periods were 10, 21 and 56 days; the groups of 91 days served as recovery groups from experimental settings of 56 days. Exposure to hypobaric condition as such and in combination with endurance training for 10 days increased right ventricular weigth-to-body weight ratio (RV/BW) by 26% (p〈0.001) and 23% (p〈0.01), respectively, when compared to 10NS. RV/BW was significantly increased also in 21HT and 56HT. Left ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio was 13% (p〈0.01) and 14% (p〈0.01) higher in 21HT and 56HT, respectively, than in the respective NS. Right ventricular collagen type III mRNA level was 33% (p=0.065) and 38% (p〈0.01) higher in 10HT than in 10NS and 10NT, respectively. Right ventricular collagen type IV mRNA level was 29% (p〈0.001) higher in 10HT than in 10NS. Relatively slight left ventricular hypertrophy was not associated with significant changes in collagen mRNA levels. Decreased left ventricular subepicardial prolyl 4-hydroxylase activity in 10HS and 10HT suggests transient corresponding decrease in the rate of collagen synthesis. This study shows that combination of endurance training and moderate hypobaric hypoxic condition leads to increased right ventricular collagen type III and IV gene expression associated with right ventricular hypertrophy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Aus Poly(oxytetramethylen), 4,4′-Bibenzyldiisocyanat, N-Methyldiethanolamin als Kettenverlängerer und Acrylsäure/Polyacrylsäure als Quaternisierungsagens wurden Poly(etherurethan)-Kationomere hergestellt. In aus diesen Kationomeren hergestellten Filmen wurde Pyrrol (15 Gew.-%) in Gegenwart von CuCl2 polymerisiert. Die Filme wurden mittels dynamisch-mechanischer Analyse, Thermogravimetrie und Differentialthermoanalyse charakterisiert. Die elektrische Leitfähigkeit beträgt für den Film ohne Polypyrrol 7.5 · 10-12 Ω-1 cm-1 und mit Polypyrrol 4.5 · 10-6 Ω-1 cm-1.
    Notes: Poly(ether urethane) cationomers based on poly(oxytetramethylene), 4,4′-bibenzyldiisocyanate, N-methyldiethanolamine as chain extender, and acrylic acid/poly(acrylic acid) as quaternization agent were synthesized. Pyrrole (15 wt.%%) was polymerized in films of the ionomer containing CuCl2. The films were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The electric conductivity of the film without polypyrrole is 7.5 · 10-12 Ω-1 cm-1, while incorporation of polypyrrole increases the conductivity to 4.5 · 10-6 Ω-1 cm-1.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on naturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 m g–1 soil, and from 55 to 335 m g–1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 m g–1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 m g–1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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