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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: tobramycin ; newborn infants ; intrapatient variations ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nineteen newborn infants receiving tobramycin, 2.5 mg/kg every 12 h were studied on two occasions at steady-state during the first week of postnatal age. The two studies were separated by two to four days. Total body clearance of tobramycin averaged 1.15 and 1.14 ml/min/kg (p〉0.05), apparent volume of distribution averaged 0.82 and 0.68 l/kg (p〉0.05), and elimination half-life averaged 8.6 and 7.1 h (p〉0.05), during the first and second study, respectively. When the data were further analyzed based on the birth weight, tobramycin kinetics changed during the second study compared to the first study in very low birth weight infants. In eight infants ⩽1.5 kg birth weight, although total clearance of tobramycin was similar, the average apparent volume of distribution decreased from 1.04 l/kg during the first study to 0.73 l/kg during the second study (p〈0.05) and elimination half-life from 11.1 h during the first study to 8.7 h during the second study (p〈0.05). These data indicate that these infants may require a change in dosing interval with continued tobramycin therapy during the first week of postnatal age. Intrapatient variation in tobramycin kinetics should be considered, in addition to the interpatient variation reported previously, when monitoring the serum concentration to individualize tobramycin therapy in newborn infants ⩽1.5 kg birth weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 443-451 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: miniature swine ; ELF ; 60-Hz electric field ; behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that rats, given the choice, will spend more time out of a 60-Hz electric field than in it at field strengths ≥ 75 kV/m. This paper describes research to examine the relevance of these data to a different species, the pig. Miniature pigs that had been exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 30 kV/m for 20 h/day, 7 days/week for as long as 6 months, were tested for their preference for the presence or absence of the field during a 23.5-h period. Similar to earlier results with rats, miniature pigs spent more time out of the electric field than in it during the sleeping period.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; ELF ; 60 Hz ; guinea pig ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Short-circuit currents, surface electric fields, and axial current densities were measured in electrically grounded guinea pigs exposed to a uniform, vertical, ELF electric field. These data are 70-110% of corresponding values obtained in grounded rats exposed to the same electric field.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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