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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 838-840 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0193-7197
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A review of recent results in the literature and from our laboratory lead to drive a general picture of the combustion or rigid PVC as well as to the mechanism by which the most powerful additive can reduce the production of smoke. It is shown that, in smoldering condition the black smoke comes chiefly from direct volatilization of heavy tar molecules from the decomposing residue. The additives change the degradation process of the PVC by catalysis of the intermolecular crosslinking reactions, which compete with the intramolecular reactions leading to formation of benzene. Whatever their initial nature, they are at least partly transformed into chlorides and then into oxides during the combustion process. The oxide of Cu, Fe and also Zn are catalysts of the oxidation of the char residue, which may be partially inhibited by phosphorous compounds. The catalytic effects seem less pronounced in flaming conditions, which cause the productions of soots from the initial tars.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0193-7197
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The increase of the smoke level from PVC plasticized with di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate with respect to the rigid PVC is caused mainly by interaction of the plasticizer with HCl evolved from the polymer when the temperature is higher than 200°C. This interaction causes the increase of the yield of phthalic anhydride probably through HCl as catalyst for DOP decomposition but phthalic anhydride formation parallels the formation of products enabled to increase the smoke level such as phthalic acid. In the presence of metallic compounds (iron, zinc, aluminium) it is possible to favor the formation of phthalic anhydride with respect to these products which are responsible for the smoke production. Then phthalic anhydride can be used as a tracer to estimate the efficiency of an additive or a combination of additives as smoke suppressant for DOP because its smoke level varies inversely with the yield of phthalic anhydride. The best combination to reduce the smoke level from plasticized PVC is obtained with the binary systems based upon copper compound, mainly efficient as smoke suppressant for PVC and either zinc or aluminium compounds, mainly efficient as smoke suppressant for DOP.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 62-64 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The wide applicability of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood classical kinetics to surfaces which are known to depart strongly from ideal Langmuir behavior is a well-known paradox of surface catalysis. The applicability and limitations of the classical method are illustrated by means of a simple reaction. The generality of the method is demonstrated by its applicability to ammonia synthesis with and without water vapor. The limitations are often more than compensated for by the added insight into reaction mechanism which it can provide without unded complexity. A three-step approach to surface kinetics is suggested and discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 313-321 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nickel catalysts reduced with sodium borohydride have been found to be active for the liquid phase dehydrogenation of isopropanol. The activity, per unit weight of catalyst, is at least as high as that of Raney nickel. Promotion of the new catalyts with small amounts of chromium has been explained by an increase in surface area. Indeed, the activity per unit surface area of the unpromoted and promoted nickel catalysts is constant over a sevenfold range of surface area.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 21 (1975), S. 822-824 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The areal rate of liquid phase hydrogenation of cyclohexene on supported platinum catalysts does not depend on the nature of the support. Nor does it depend on particle size of the metal. The rate constant is independent of the nature of the solvent when the concentration of hydrogen in it is expressed as its measured or calculated solubility. All observations are compatible with the idea that the measured rate is that of chemisorption of dihydrogen on a metal surface covered with reactive hydrocarbon intermediates.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 26 (1980), S. 477-486 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Coupling between transient chemical reaction at equilibrium and a linear and isothermal chromatographic separation is studied when a nonlinear chemical mass action law is assumed to hold between the species. It is shown that the qualitative features of the chromatograms can be predicted by simple algebraic calculations. Two novel properties of the adsorptive (or chromatographic) reactor are demonstrated. The improvement of the theory, with regard to quantitative predictions, is discussed.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 36 (1990), S. 207-215 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An on-line estimation technique for multiple specific growth rates is proposed. Time-varying tuning parameters are used to obtain constant estimation error dynamics in spite of strongly varying process dynamics commonly encountered in bioprocesses. This approach simplifies the tuning of the algorithm to a pole placement procedure. Application of the method is illustrated through the study of the baker's yeast fedbatch process. Guidelines for selection of measured state variables are given in relation to the performance of the estimation method.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 38 (1992), S. 1751-1760 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The experimental validation of on-line estimation of multiple specific growth rates for the bakers' yeast fed-batch process is presented. Pole placement based parameter estimation combined with an asymptotic biomass observer constitute the basic algorithm. The full process model being ill-conditioned for estimation using the available measured state variables, the use of two partial models related to two different states of the process is suggested. An alternating procedure between two sets of estimation algorithms designed from the partial models is proposed. The performance of the alternating procedure is validated both with simulated and experimental data. The accuracy of the estimates of the three specific growth rates involved in this process is verified according to two criteria based on the respiratory quotient and on the evaluation of the ethanol production/consumption rate.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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