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  • Articles  (34)
  • Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology  (34)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 34 (1988), S. 1673-1682 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The planar-flow melt-spinning process which is used to rapidly solidify metals from the molten state is shown to be dominated by the fluid mechanics of the “puddle” region even though heat-transfer limits the overall thickness of the metal ribbon product. The process is modeled to account for the hydrodynamical forces in the molten region with the influence of heat-transfer entering through a parameter measuring solidification rate relative to wheel speed. It is shown that this parameter H controls the deviation of the flow behavior from classical coating flow solutions; these solutions are recovered in a limiting case of low solidification rate. A perturbation solution in H distinguishes the melt spinning from the coating process and yields the ribbon thickness as a function of wheel-speed and the other process parameters for a class of contact-line conditions. Most interesting of these predictions is the result that under certain conditions there is a window of wheel-speeds for which there is no steady solution. The relationship of predictions with the limited available data from experiment is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 13 (1921), S. 410-413 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A randomized block design with a 4 × 3 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments involving four fat levels, three grinding systems and five storage periods was utilized to determine the effects of processing variables on microbial, physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausage. In general, microbial numbers decreased as the level of fat increased and increased with reduced particle size and time in storage. The surface color became lighter and less red with increasing levels of fat and time in storage. Higher cook yields (%) were associated with higher degrees of maceration while lower yields were observed for sausage manufactured to contain high levels of fat (40 and 45%). Length of storage had the greatest effect on the desirable sensory characteristics of the product. An optimum processing system was postulated from the results of the study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pre- and postrigor coarse ground beef was preblended with either salt, salt plus antioxidants or salt plus nitrite and stored for an extended period of time at 2°C. Although prerigor preblends had a lower pH and more salt-extractable protein, smokehouse yields for pre- and postrigor wiener batters were similar. Wieners prepared from prerigor raw materials were generally more acceptable in appearance, flavor and juiciness and more desirable than wieners prepared from postrigor raw materials. Desirable sausage making qualities of prerigor beef raw material can be maintained by pre-blending raw material with 3% salt plus 60 ppm nitrite, packaging preblends to minimize exposure to air and storing at 2°C for up to 28 days. Addition of a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene and citric acid to the preblend had no effect on functional quality of the raw materials.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Subjective ratings for muscle color and firmness were utilized to segment 299 fresh hams into four different quality groups (low, average, high, dark and soft). Individual hams were pumped to 115% of their green weights with a 62° brine (8–2–2 mixture) by either an artery (188 hams) or stitch (111 hams) brine injection system and then held at 3°C for a 21-day brine equalization period. The hams were then washed, placed in stockinettes and smoked. Prior to smoking, individual hams were assigned to one of six smoking schedules which were based upon three different levels of relative humidity (40, 60 and 80%) and two heating schedules (60, 71, 82°C and 49, 60, 71°C, dry bulb). Center-cut slices (1.25 cm thick) were removed from five or six average quality hams in each smoking schedule. Three 0.3 cm thick slices were removed from the top (medial side) and two 0.3 cm thick slices from the bottom (lateral side) of each center-cut slice for smoke deposition determinations (phenolic compounds). Artery-pumped hams produced significantly higher processing yields than the stitch-pumped hams. Smoke deposition was not affected by method of brine injection. Processing yields were significantly lower for the low-quality group of hams. Smoking schedules employing the lower smokehouse temperatures and relative humidities (40 and 60%) produced higher overall processing yields. At the higher temperature schedule, 60% relative humidity decidedly reduced overall processing yields. Processors desiring to use higher smokehouse temperatures should use a relative humidity greater than or less than, but not equal to, 60% to optimize processing yields. The concentrations of phenols observed in all six treatments would result in acceptable smoke flavor ratings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 43 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and air velocity) were monitored inside refrigerated trailers loaded with beef carcasses during stationary and in-transit trials. The effects on meat color maintenance were followed on meat samples located throughout the trucks. The effect of initial carcass heat load on color maintenance during transport was studied utilizing a simulated trailer environment. Results show that an excellent environment is maintained in refrigerated trailers for beef color maintenance in-transit despite fluctuations in outside temperature and over-the-road conditions. Results from tests in which carcasses with elevated internal round temperature (15°C) were held in a simulated trailer environment suggests that shipping of such carcasses in refrigerated trailers could lead to bacterial growth and discoloration in-transit.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The longissimus and semimembranosus muscles were obtained from 5 carcasses of each of 13 breeds or breed crosses. These carcasses exhibited small and modest degrees of marbling and were obtained from cattle fed on an 85% concentrate ration for the same length of time. Palatability, shear force and cooking loss data were recorded after ovenroasting longissimus and semimembranosus steaks and braising semimembranosus steaks. Roasted longissimus steaks had more desirable (P 〉 0.05) flavor, juiciness, tenderness, amount of connective tissue and overall satisfaction scores with less cooking losses than roasted semimembranosus samples. Roasted semimembranosus steaks possessed more desirable (P 〉 0.05) flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall satisfaction scores than braised semimembranosus steaks. Neither breed nor the interaction involving breed with muscle location-cooking method proved to be significant (P 〈 0.05) factors affecting palatability traits. Correlation coefficients were extremely low between palatability attributes of the longissimus and those of the semimembranosus. Likewise, relationships were small in magnitude among palatability traits obtained from roasted semimembranosus vs those noted for the braised semimembranosus. These results imply that palatability values obtained for one muscle or by one method of cookery have low predictive capabilities for another muscle or method of cookery when steaks are derived from cattle possessing very limited differences in maturity, marbling and preslaughter management.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of three levels of fat (25, 30 and 35%), nonfat dry milk (NFDM) (0, 5 and 10%) and added water (yields of 115, 130 and 125% of the original meat block) on the sensory qualities of spiced luncheon loaves were evaluated. A 20-member trained taste panel evaluated each loaf for color, flavor, firmness and general acceptability characteristics and a Universal Instron Testing Instrument was employed for objective texture measurements. Fat level and added water (yield) had highly significant (P 〉 0.01) effects on color while fat level influenced the flavor characteristics of the product. All variables tested significantly (P 〉 0.01) affected firmness, while fat content influenced (P 〉 0.01) the general acceptability of the loaves. For all responses measured, a significant (P 〉 0.05) interaction between levels of fat and NFDM existed. Taste panel members indicated a preference for loaves containing 30% fat and 5.0% NFDM. Color scores and firmness decreased as the amount of added water increased. Product shrinkage increased as added water (yield) was increased but decreased as the amount of NFDM was added to the formula.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 58 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Polymerization of beef actomyosin was induced by addition of transglutaminase. The relative intensity analyzed by densitometry after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that bands containing the polymerized myosin increased from 10.1 ± 2.2% to 20.7 ± 3.5% while the myosin monomer band decreased from 20.9 ± 3.4% to 13.0 ± 2.7% as the reaction time extended from 10 to 120 min at 35°C. Polymerization of actomyosin induced by transglutaminase resulted in gelation of the actomyosin that was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ingredients used in comminuted meat products were divided into four classes: Class I–striated, skeletal muscle meats; Class II – striated, nonskeletal muscle meat; Class III – organ and smooth muscle meats; and Class IV – nonmeat proteins. Within this classification scheme, bind value constants developed by different workers were subjected to regression anaylsis using protein or moisture as the independent variable. Linear or multiple regression equations with high correlation coefficients were obtained for Class I and Class III meats indicating reliable predictive value of moisture or protein content. These equations should prove useful for esimating bind value constants for meat ingredients in these classes for which such constants have not been established by experimental procedures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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