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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Liver transplantation, pediatric, biliary complications ; Biliary complications, liver transplantation, pediatric ; Pediatric liver transplantation, biliary complications
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between 1983 and 1992, 112 children underwent liver transplantation. Of 138 grafts, 60 (43.4%) were whole livers, 77 (55.6%) were reduced livers, and 1 (0.7%) was a split liver. Biliary complications (BC) were defined as any abnormality, even minor, related to the biliary tract. Results were analysed with a minimum follow-up of 9 months. Some 36 grafts (26.1%) in 34 patients (30.4%) presented with BC: bile leaks (17 grafts), biliary obstructions or dilatations (16 grafts), and other complications (3 grafts). Management was mainly surgical with biliary reconstruction via a Roux-en-Y loop. Interventional radiology had an increasing role in recent years. BC were associated with a mortality of 1.8% (2/112), a graft loss rate of 4.3% (6/138), and significant morbidity. Among the various factors whose association with BC was studied, the date of transplantation, the use of reduced grafts and the use of gallbladder conduits appeared to be the main determining factors for BC. From multivariate analysis the use of reduced grafts emerged as the most important factor in reducing BC. We therefore conclude that BC are associated with significant morbidity, but general improvements in both surgical and medical management seem to account for better results in recent years.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] DNA damage surveillance networks in human cells can activate DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in response to fewer than four double-strand breaks (DSBs) per genome. These same networks tolerate telomeres, in part because the protein TRF2 prevents recognition of telomeric ends as ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 107 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To better define the antigenic structure of the outer cell membranes of Legionellae, a panel of 6 monoclonal antibodies was raised against partially purified outer membranes of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, Corby strain. This study describes the purification and characterization of one of these monoclonal antibodies reacting with a 135-kDa protein, which was shown to be common to all 14 serogroups of Legionella pneumophila. It shows no cross-reactivity with 20 other Legionella species, or 9 other Gram-negative species tested by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting procedures. The epitope would appear to be predominantly surface exposed and, from preliminary detergent extraction studies, not peptidoglycan-associated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: brain tumors ; radiation therapy ; PCNU ; AZQ
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Purpose A two-arm randomized clinical trial was performed to determine the efficacy of PCNU and AZQ in the treatment ofde novo or recurrent primary brain tumors. An additional objective was to gather information on the administration and toxicity of these compounds, supplementing that obtained previously in phase I/II studies. Methods During 1982 and 1983 the Brain Tumor Study Group randomized 152 adult patients with primary brain tumors to receive PCNU 75–100 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) every 8 weeks or AZQ 15 mg/m2 IV once a week for 4 weeks, every 6–8 weeks. All patients who had not received ‘full dose’ radiotherapy before randomization received it concurrently with the first course of protocol chemotherapy. The data were analyzed for the total randomized population (RP), and for 130 patients in the valid study group (VSG) formed by excluding 22 patients for whom the histologic diagnosis was not documented by central review. Results Median survival times were 11.0 months for the PCNU group and 8.4 months for the AZQ group. The difference in survival curves was statistically significant for the RP (p=0.01) and the VSG (p=0.02). Lifetable analysis of the VSG showed estimated 2-year survivals of 34% for PCNU and 11% for AZQ. The advantage of PCNU remained significant (p=0.006) after adjustment for histopathologic category, age, initial performance status, and interval from initial reported surgery. Myelosuppression was the principal toxicity in both groups.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: glioma ; intra-arterial cisplatin ; PCNU ; randomized trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Purpose To test the efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) cisplatin versus intravenous (IV) PCNU for treating primary brain tumors, in a randomized trial (Brain Tumor Cooperative Group [BTCG] Trial 8420A). Methods 311 adult patients (ages 19–79 years; median 45) with supratentorial tumors (confirmed histologically) were randomized by nine participating institutions. Patients were required to have completed radiotherapy (4500–6020 cGy to the tumor bed) before randomization. Patients were stratified as either nonprogressive (clinically and radiologically stable) or progressive. Results were analyzed for the 311 patients in the randomized population (RP), and for the 281 patients in the Valid Study Group (VSG) meeting protocol eligibility requirements. 56% of patients in the VSG had glioblastoma multiforme, 33% had other malignant glioma, and 11% had low-grade glioma. 64% were stratified as progressive. 12% had received prior chemotherapy. Results The group randomized to PCNU had the longer survival (p = 0.06 for the RP, p = 0.07 for the VSG). In the VSG, median survival was 10 months for the cisplatin group, 13 months for the PCNU group. The difference between treatment groups was significant (p ≤0.02) when adjusted for important prognostic factors. PCNU lead to greater hematotoxicity; cisplatin lead to greater renal toxicity and some ototoxicity. Some cisplatin patients experienced complications associated with IA administration, including six cases of encephalopathy. Conclusion The trial showed a survival advantage to the group randomized to PCNU, although the difference was modest. Coupled with previous BTCG results, these trials suggest that PCNU is an active drug for brain tumors.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: sedation: Nalbuphine ; droperidol ; carmustine: intra-arterial ; anti-emetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A therapeutic regimen is described for sedative, analgesic, and anti-emetic effect in patients receiving intraarterial carmustine (BCNU) for malignant gliomas. This regimen consists of nalbuphine, 30 mg, i.v., and droperidol, 2.5 mg, i.v., given immediately prior to intra-carotid BCNU infusion. Droperidol, 2.5 mg, i.v., is then administered on four hour intervals for sixteen hours post-procedure. This combination provided excellent effect in nine patients treated for twelve intra-carotid infusions. None of the nine patients experienced vomiting, one experienced mild nausea several hours post-infusion, and non complained of severe pain or discomfort. Thirteen additional patients received diazepam, 10 mg, P.O., prior to the intra-carotid BCNU infusion, with fentanyl, 100 mcg, i.v., and prochlorperazine, 10 mg, i.m. at the onset of infusion. All thirteen patients suffered from severe nausea, vomiting, and orbital pain. The nalbuphine/droperidol combination is thought to provide a superior alternative to the traditional narcotic/pheonothiazine/benzodiazepine combination for carotid BCNU infusion. This combination has theoretical advantages for the patient with intracranial mass lesions by providing analgesia and sedation with minimal potential for respiratory depression and carbon dioxide retention.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: glioma ; growth factor ; oncogene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A human malignant glioma cell line, U-251 Mg, cultured under serum free conditions, was shown to produce a growth factor for BALB/c 3T3 cells (glioma-derived growth factor-1, GDGF-1). The biological activity of GDGF-1 resided in a heat- and acid-resistant protein with a molecular weight (MW) of 25 kDa estimated by gel permeation chromatography. GDGF-1 activity was neutralized by a goat anti-human platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) antibody, indicating that the two factors were immunologically related. Furthermore, U-251 Mg cells constitutively expressed c-sis mRNA. When U-251 Mg cells were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, 2 novel growth factors (GDGF-2 and GDGF-3) were produced in addition to the PDGF-like substance. GDGF-2 was determined to be 〉100 kDa MW and was not neutralized by the goat anti-PDGF antiserum. The biological activity of GDGF-3 was also heat- and acid- resistant with an apparent 14 kDa MW This factor also did not show any common antigenicity with PDGF. GDGF-2 and GDGF-3 are currently under investigation and evidence as to their natures will be published elsewhere. Our findings with this glioma cell line provide further evidence that inappropriate expression of growth factor-related genes could play important autocrine role(s) in the processes leading to malignant transformation and/or uncontrolled proliferation and may provide a paracrine stimulus for such processes as glioma neovascularization.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Phragmites australis (common reed) has expanded in many wetland habitats. Its ability to exclude other plant species has led to both control and eradication programs. This study examined two control methods—herbicide application or a herbicide-burning combination—for their efficacy and ability to restore plant biodiversity in non-tidal wetlands. Two Phragmites-dominated sites received the herbicide glyphosate. One of these sites was burned following herbicide application. Plant and soil macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity were evaluated pre-treatment and every year for four years post-treatment using belt transects. The growth of Phragmites propagules—seeds, rhizomes, and rooted shoots—was examined in the greenhouse and under bare, burned, or vegetated soil conditions. Both control programs greatly reduced Phragmites abundance and increased plant biodiversity. Plant re-growth was quicker on the herbicide-burn site, with presumably a more rapid return to wetland function. Re-growth at both sites depended upon a pre-existing, diverse soil seed bank. There were no directed changes in soil macroinvertebrate abundance or diversity and they appeared unaffected by changes in the plant community. Phragmites seeds survived only on bare soils, while buried rhizomes survived under all soil conditions. This suggests natural seeding of disturbed soils and inadvertent human planting of rhizomes as likely avenues for Phragmites colonization. Herbicide control, with or without burning, can reduce Phragmites abundance and increase plant biodiversity temporarily. These changes do not necessarily lead to a more diverse animal community. Moreover, unless Phragmites is eradicated and further human disturbance is prohibited, it will likely eventually re-establish dominance.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The automatic ICD improves survival in patients with a history of sudden cardiac arrest. However, some patients do not meet the guidelines for ICD implantation or are unable to receive an implantable device. This study tested the hypothesis that these patients could benefit from a wearable cardioverter defibrillator. Patients with symptomatic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 〈0.30 (WEARIT Study) or patients having complications associated with high risk for sudden death after a myocardial infarction or bypass surgery not receiving an ICD for up to 4 months (BIROAD Study) were enrolled into two studies. After a total of 289 patients had been enrolled in the trial (177 in WEARIT and 112 in BIROAD), prespecified safety and effectiveness guidelines had been met. Six (75%) of eight defibrillation attempts were successful. Six inappropriate shock episodes occurred during 901 months of patient use (0.67% unnecessary shocks per month of use). Twelve deaths occurred during the study 6 sudden deaths: 5 not wearing and 1 incorrectly wearing the device). Most patients tolerated the device although 68 patients quit due to comfort issues or adverse reactions. The results of the present study suggest that a wearable defibrillator is beneficial in detecting and effectively treating ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients at high risk for sudden death who are not clear candidates for an ICD and may be useful as a bridge to transplantation or ICD in some patients. (PACE 2004; 27:4–9)
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