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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Computerised tomographic angiography ; Electron beam tomography ; Computed tomography ; Contrast enhancement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of electron beam tomography (EBT) with fast continuous volume scanning for CT angiography (CTA) in chest and abdomen. An Evolution XP EBT scanner with a new software version (12.34) was used. One hundred forty images per study can be acquired in 17 s using 3-mm collimation and overlapping image reconstruction. Study protocols for five different clinical applications of EBT CTA were established and evaluated. The EBT CTA technique was performed in 155 patients. High- and homogeneous density values were achieved along the whole course of the vessels; the mean density in the aorta was 〉 240 HU. Coeliac axis, superior and inferior mesenteric artery, renal and lumbar arteries were visualised in all cases. Maximum intensity projection and shaded surface display reconstruction demonstrated the relation between aneurysm and aortic branches very well due to an excellent resolution along the z-axis. In large scan volumes overlapping image reconstruction demonstrated better resolution along the z-axis than is available with helical CT. The EBT CTA technique proved to be very well suited excellent suitability for evaluation of pulmonary vessels. Compared with helical CT, EBT CTA offers a shorter scan time, which allows higher contrast enhancement in pulmonary vessels. The identification of intraluminal emboli and mural thrombi has improved. The EBT CTA technique is a very reliable tool for evaluation of aortic disease and pulmonary vessels.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Epiglottitis ; Adult ; Acute
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Acute epiglottitis is a rare but life-threatening disease that commonly occurs in children, and also rarely in adults. The symptoms may be mild and non-specific before a rapid onset of airway obstruction occurs. Early diagnosis is essential, as delayed treatment is associated with a high rate of complications including death. We present the clinical and radiological findings of this unusual condition in an adult.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Arteria princeps pollicis ; Superficial palmar arch ; Arteria radialis indicis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cinq cas d'artères de la première commissure de la main prenant leur origine uniquement sur l'arcade palmaire superficielle sont rapportés. Aucune de ces artères n'était de taille suffisante pour pouvoir être intitulée «artère princeps pollicis». Ces variations doivent être prises en compte dans les dissections chirurgicales de la main.
    Notes: Summary Five cases are described where the first web space of the hand received arteries only from the superficial palmar arch. None of these branches was large enough to deserve the name “princeps pollicis artery”. These variations must be taken into account during surgical dissections of the hand.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pscychiatric wills are advance directives for an eventual involuntary treatment in psychiatry. We attempted to determine psychiatric professionals' knowledge and opinion about this legal option and obtain their formulations of advance directives for themselves. A total of 101 psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Vienna responded to a questionnaire about psychiatric wills and anonymously drafted advance directives for themselves concerning psychiatric treatment in case of an acute psychosis. Fifty-four percent knew about this legal option, 55% considered it an appropriate legal possibility, and 29% considered it inappropriate. The study also found that 75% of respondents reject certain methods of therapy, e.g. 30% want to exclude the use of neuroleptic medications, and 46% reject ECT. We conclude that although there is little experience so far with advance directives for psychiatric patients, there is an interest and predominance of positive attitudes towards this legal option among mental health professionals. Concerning their preferences, professionals felt inclined to make very specific statements as to which available treatment strategies they would reject and which they would request for their treatment. This bodes well for the widespread use of advance directives in mental health settings.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Arteria princeps pollicis ; Superficial palmar arch ; Arteria radialis indicis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Five cases are described where the first web space of the hand received arteries only from the superficial palmar arch. None of these branches was large enough to deserve the name “princeps pollicis artery”. These variations must be taken into account during surgical dissections of the hand.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 2226-2231 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Optical beam induced current (OBIC) imaging through the backside of integrated circuits was investigated in the wavelength λ region from 1.15 to 1.26 μm. With a subpicosecond excitation source and approximately 1 mW at the sample, the two-photon contribution to the generated photocurrent dominates at λ=1.25 μm but becomes negligible for λ〈1.18 μm. One-photon- (1P-) and two-photon- (2P-) OBIC images are very different. In the 1P case a strong contribution by scattered light to the carrier generation leads to an edge enhancement effect that is entirely missing when 2P excitation dominates. 2P-OBIC images often show supply-voltage dependent intensity steps that are much sharper than the optical resolution permits. The advantages of 2P-OBIC lie in the spatial confinement of the free carrier generation, a more relevant contrast mechanism, and the promise of a substantial increase in spatial resolution because of the quadratic intensity dependence and the possibility of using silicon solid immersion lenses, which could eventually provide resolution sufficient for circuits made by deep UV lithography. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Aperture-based near-field microscopy suffers from fundamental limitations imposed by the electromagnetic skin depth of the aperture material and a rapidly decreasing throughput as the aperture is made smaller. Apertureless approaches without these limitations have been demonstrated for coherent imaging but are not easily applicable to incoherent processes such as fluorescence or Raman scattering and to photochemical surface modification. Using multi-photon processes in conjunction with the field enhancement that occurs at a sharp tip in close apposition to a substrate should permit substantial localization of absorption and excitation to a nm sized volume. The expected enhancement of the optical field at the tip edge is calculated here for various combinations of metallic and nonmetallic tip and substrate materials. It is estimated that when using 100 fs pulses repeating at 100 MHz average laser powers of about 10 mW should be sufficient to reach saturating field strengths for three-photon absorption. Steady state and instantaneous temperature rises at the tip are estimated and found likely not to be a limiting factor. Fluorescence quenching is expected to limit the resolution achievable with metallic tips to about 5 nm, but tips made from highly refracting insulators or semiconductors should allow truly molecular resolution. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphorus heterocycles ; Aromaticity ; Phosphenium cations ; Ab initio calculations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The aromatic stabilization of cyclic phosphenium cations (general type C2N2P+) was studied by experimental methods (synthesis, multinuclear NMR, single crystal X-ray crystallography) and quantum chemical calculations (ab initio methods). The structures of the 1,3,2-diazaphosphole derivatives [(tBuN-CH=CH-NtBu)P+]Cl- (1), (tBuN-CH2-CH2-NtBu)P-Cl (2), [(tBuN-CH=CH-NtBu)P]+PF6- (3) and [(tBuN-CH2-CH2-NtBu)]P+PF6- (4) were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The chloro phosphane [(tBuN-CH=CH-NtBu)P]+Cl- (1) has an ionic P-Cl bond and contains an aromatically stabilized phosphenium cation [shortest distance P···Cl = 275.9(2) pm], while the CC-saturated compound (tBuN-CH2-CH2-NtBu)P-Cl (2) is covalent. The two chloro-phosphanes 1 and 2 differ sharply in their volatility and solubility in organic solvents. Compound 2 is soluble in hydrocarbons and sublimes readily at 90 °C/0.1 Torr but 1 is insoluble in hexanes and not volatile below 180 °C/0.1 Torr. The degree of aromatic stabilization in the phosphenium cation 1 was investigated by ab initio methods. For the model cations [RN-CH2-CH2-NR]P+ and [(RN-CH=CH-NR)P]+, thermochemical stabilization energies of 25.8 kcal · mol-1 (R = H) and 28.1 kcal · mol-1 (R = Me) were obtained from isodesmic hydrogenation reactions at the RHF/MP2/6-31G*//RHF/6-31G* level.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  · Background: In order to develop new strategies for the pharmacological modulation of posttraumatic and postsurgical wound healing of the corneal stroma, the effect of Trapidil, a competitive platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist, on the proliferation of cultured bovine stromal fibroblasts (BSF) was investigated. · Methods: BSF, obtained from explant cultures, were seeded at a cell density of 100/mm2. The effect of various concentrations of Trapidil on cell viability and cell proliferation was determined using three different culture conditions: (1) serum-free medium (WM/F12), (2) serum-containing medium (WM/F12+10% FCS), and (3) serum-free medium +50 ng/ml PDGF-BB. Trapidil was added in concentrations ranging from 100 μg/ml to 400 μg/ml. Cell numbers were determined 2 and 5 days after addition of Trapidil, using a computer-based cell-counting system. Cell viability was evaluated morphologically and by means of a repopulation assay. · Results: Addition of Trapidil (100–400 μg/ml) led to a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of both serum- and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of BSF. In contrast, treatment of quiescent BSF, cultured in serum-free medium, did not result in a significant reduction of cell number. No cytotoxic effects were observed. · Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate an inhibitory effect of Trapidil on the proliferation of BSF. It can be assumed that application of Trapidil might be a useful tool in the prevention of corneal complications after trauma (e.g., scarring, astigmatism and – with respect to photorefractive procedures – formation of haze and regression of the refractive effect).
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