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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oryza sativa L. ; Waxy gene product Glutelin α3 molecular weight ; Isozyme type RFLP waxy gene probe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Four methods for classifying cultivated rices (Oryza sativa L.) (including IR varieties) into indica and japonica types — waxy gene product in endosperm starch, glutelin α3 molecular weight in milled rice, RFLP polymorphism at the Wx locus and Glaszmann's isozyme method — were compared. On the basis of the two endosperm traits and the RFLP method Glaszmann's group 1 (indica) was classified as mainly indica and intermediate groups 2, 3 and 4 as exclusively indica. However, the endosperm traits classified Glaszmann's group 5 as mainly indica, while the RFLP method classified it as japonica. The RFLP waxy gene probe was closest to the isozyme method in classifying group 6 as japonicas; the waxy gene product gave mainly indica reaction even in group 6, and the glutelin α3 method was intermediate. All IR rices were classified as being indica on the basis of Wx gene product and by Glaszmann's method, but a few were classified as japonica by the glutelin α3 method and by the RFLP waxy gene probe.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RFLP markers ; Fine-mapping ; Blast resistance ; Pyramiding ; Marker-assisted selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three major genes (Pi1, Piz-5 and Pita) for blast resistance on chromosomes 11, 6 and 12, respectively, were fine-mapped and closely linked RFLP markers identified. New markers for Pi1 and Pita were found that were flanking the genes. The three genes were pyramided using RFLP markers. A PCR-based SAP (sequence amplified polymorphism) marker was used to identify Piz-5 in the segregating population. The plants carrying the two- and three-gene combinations that were tested for resistance to leaf blast in the Philippines and India indicated that combinations including Piz-5 have enhanced resistance than when it is present alone. The genes from the pyramided lines are at present being deployed into agronomically superior ricevarieties by marker-aided selection (MAS).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words BAC library ; Landmark for physical mapping ; Map-based gene cloning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  To facilitate construction of physical map of the rice genome, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of IR64 genomic DNA was constructed. It consists of 18 432 clones and contains 3.28 rice genomic equivalents. The insert size ranged from 37 to 364 kb with an average of 107 kb. We used 31 RFLP markers on chromosome 4 to screen the library by colony hybridization. Sixty eight positive clones were identified with 2.2 positive clones per RFLP marker. The positive clones were analyzed to generate 29 contigs whose sizes ranged from 50 to 384 kb with an average of 145.6 kb. Chromosome walking was initiated for ten contigs linked to resistance genes. Thirty eight BAC clones were obtained and two contigs were integrated. Altogether, they covered 5.65 Mb (15.1%) of chromosome 4. These contigs may be used as landmarks for physical mapping of chromosome 4, and as starting points for chromosome walking towards the map-based cloning of disease resistance genes which were located nearby.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Genetic map  ;  Marker-aided selection  ; Oryza sativa  ;  RFLP markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We exploited the newly developed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to study the polymorphism, distribution and inheritance of AFLP markers with a doubled haploid rice population derived from ‘IR64’/‘Azucena’. Using only 20 pairs of primer combinations, we detected 945 AFLP bands of which 208 were polymorphic. All 208 AFLP markers were mapped and distributed over all 12 chromosomes. When these were compared with RFLP markers already mapped in the population, we found the AFLP markers to be highly polymorphic in rice and to follow Mendelian segregation. As linkage map of rice can be generated rapidly with AFLP markers they will be very useful for marker-assisted backcrossing.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: Actin —β-Thymosin — Ecdysozoa — Evolution — Metazoa — Phylogeny — Porifera —Sycon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The definition of an Ecdysozoa clade among the protostomians, including all phyla with a regularly molted α-chitin-rich cuticle, has been one of the most provocative hypotheses to arise from recent investigations on animal phylogeny. Here we present evidence in favor of an arthropod-nematode clade, from the comparison of β-thymosin homologues among the Metazoa. Arthropods and nematodes share the absence of the highly conserved β-thymosin form found in all other documented bilaterian phyla as well as sponges, and the possession of a very unusual, internally triplicated homologue of the β-thymosin protein, unknown in other phyla. We argue that such discrete molecular character is phylogenetically very powerful and provides strong evidence for the monophyly of an arthropod-nematode clade.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Drosophila ; Collagen ; Haemocytes ; Basement membranes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report a direct examination of the expression of one collagen gene (DCg1) during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis, based on data from in situ hybridization. The transcripts of this gene, thought to encode a basement membrane type IV collagen, are mainly accumulated during ecdysis in wandering haemocytes. Our results demonstrate that haemocytes contribute to extracellular matrix deposition and seem to perform a fibroblastic function during Drosophila development.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Type IV collagen ; Drosophila ; Germ band retraction ; Dorsal closure ; Nerve cord condensation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A collagen gene (Dcg1) was characterized in Drosophila melanogaster and shown to encode a peptide related to vertebrate basement membrane type IV collagen chains. To study the function of type IV collagen during Drosophila development, we transformed flies with a partially truncated Dcg1 gene under the control of a heat-shock promotor. This construct induced synthesis of shortened pro-α chains which associated with normal ones and thereby caused degradation of the shortened and normal pro-α chains through a process called “pro-collagen suicide”. A large proportion of embryos expressing the transgene developed a phenotype exhibiting absence or partial retraction of the germ band with defects in nerve cord condensation and dorsal closure. Together these results indicated that, during embryogenesis, type IV collagen was an essential guiding factor for cell-matrix interactions in morphogenetic events.
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