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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Chromatographie, HPLC ; Ankopplung von GC-Detektoren
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wenn gas-chromatographische Detektoren (GC-Detektoren) am Ausgang eines Flüssigkeits-Chromatographen (HPLC) benutzt werden sollen, muß man die mobile, flüssige Phase zunächst in die Gasform überführen. Wenn man nun die ReversedPhase-Chromatographie einerseits und den Flammenbanden-Detektor (FBD) mit In-Oberflächen für den spezifischen Nachweis von Cl bzw. Br bzw. J andererseits einsetzen will, muß man zusätzlich den Eluenten — z.B. Methanol + Wasser — entfernen. Im folgenden wird eine Anordnung beschrieben, die diese Arbeitsgänge mit Hilfe eines erhitzten Endlos-Bandes erledigt.
    Notes: Summary If GC-detectors shall be used as HPLC-detectors, a transformation of the liquid phase into a gas. must be achieved. In applying reversed phase chromatography on the one side and flame band detectors (FBD) with In-surfaces for the specific detection of Cl or Br or I on the other side, the eluent — for example methanol + water — must be removed additionally. In this paper a device is described performing these steps by help of a heated rotating endless band.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary An analytical method is presented for identifying and quantitating the residues of eleven benzodiazepines and twelve metabolites in meat and other tissues, blood, serum, and urine. Meat, liver, kidney etc. are pretreated by enzymatic proteolysis and urine by enzymatic cleavage of glucuronides. The benzodiazepines are isolated by adsorption on Amberlite XAD-2 and are analyzed by capillary gasliquid chromatography using the electron capture detector. The benzophenones formed by acid hydrolysis of the benzodiazepines can be analyzed in the same way. A feeding experiment with a pig at a level of 0.3 mg/kg clotiazepam and oral administration of 10 mg clotiazepam to four men showed that the method stands the test under routine conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-9368
    Keywords: growth factors ; SV40 T antigen ; hGH ; c-fos ; c-myc ; immortalized hepatocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A clonal hepatocyte line (FMH-202-2), derived from livers of fetal transgenic mice harbouring human growth hormone (hGH) and SV40 T antigen as transgenes, was used in the investigation of protooncogene expression involved in liver-specific growth control and/or in hepatocellular transformation. In this model system, representing an immortalized, yet untransformed phenotype, the transgenes hGH and SV40 T antigen were expressed constitutively. The c-fos protooncogene was induced by incubation with insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in a transient manner comparable to its expression in primary murine hepatocytes. Elucidation of second messenger mechanisms demonstrated that c-fos induction by hepatotrophic growth factors was not mediated by protein kinase C. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, the c-myc protooncogene exhibited a constitutive expression pattern which was independent of growth factor stimulation. These results indicate that apart from hGH and SV40 T antigen, c-myc may play a role in cellular immortalization, but that constitutive expression of these genes, even in combined coexpression, does not suffice to induce the transformed phenotype.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary North American as well as East Asian whip scorpions of the generaMastigoproctus andTypopeltis are known to use acetic acid and caprylic acid as a defense mechanism. In the secretion from defense glands of a ChineseTypopeltis species, 2-ketones (2-heptanone, 2-octanone, and 2-nonanone) were identified as constituents for the first time. While acetic acid is also present as a secretory product, no caprylic acid has been found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A report on the further development of an automatic data acquisition and remote transmitting system is given. The improvements distinguishing the new device in comparision with the earlier one are described. Then a discussion of the errors and influencing effects follows. By means of a theoretical estimation it is tried to give a prediction on the system reliability which is to be expected. Finally the operation and the maintenance of the device as well as the possibilities in removing errors are treated shortly.
    Abstract: Résumé On rapporte ici le développement apporté à une installation automatique de mesures et de transmission. On décrit en particulier les améliorations qui distinguent l'appareillage actuel d'un ancien. On y ajoute une discussion des fautes de mesure et des divers éléments agissant sur le tout. Au moyen d'une estimation théorique, on essaie de prévoir la sécurité que l'on est en droit d'attendre du système. On décrit enfin brièvement le service et l'entretien de l'installation ainsi que les possibilités d'éliminer les erreurs.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird über die Weiterentwicklung einer automatischen Meßwerterfassungs- und-übertragungsanlage berichtet. Die Verbesserungen, in denen sich die jetzige Anlage gegenüber der früheren unterscheidet, werden beschrieben. Dem schließt sich eine Diskussion der Meßfehler und Einflußgrößen an. Mittels einer theoretischen Abschätzung wird der Versuch unternommen, Voraussagen über die zu erwartende Systemzuverlässigkeit zu geben. Schließlich werden die Bedienung und die Wartung der Anlage sowie die Möglichkeiten der Fehlerbeseitigung kurz behandelt.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-3904
    Keywords: Simultaneous synthesis ; Peptide library ; Epitope ; p24 ; HIV-1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Epitope libraries of the HIV-1 p24 epitope GATPQDLNTM, recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody CB 4-1, were prepared by simultaneous synthesis on single resin supports (solution phase library) and on a continuous cellulose membrane support (solid phase-bound library) Each position of the epitope was replaced by 19 l-amino acids (cysteine omitted) in the soluble library or by 20 l-amino acids in the cellulose-bound library. The soluble library was synthesized by simultaneously incorporating equimolar amino acid mixtures at each position of the epitope or by synthesizing single epitope analogues. The peptide mixtures were subsequently analyzed by HPLC, CZE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Double coupling of equimolar amino acid mixtures of either 0.8 equiv (coupling at epitope positions 6–10) or 1.5 equiv (coupling at epitope positions 1–5) resulted in approximately equimolar incorporation of all single components of the mixture. The mixtures were then separated by preparative HPLC, and the peptides or peptide mixtures of single fractions were isolated and analyzed for binding CB 4-1. The results were compared with those obtained from antibody binding studies using the cellulose-bound epitope library. The affinity constants of the soluble peptide variants qualitatively correlated with the binding of CB 4-1 to single cellulose-bound analogues. Both approaches allowed the rapid identification of key residues in antibody binding, thus giving insight into the molecular nature of this antibody-peptide interaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-1588
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Gastroenteritisviren ; Hepatitis-A-Virus ; Hepatitis-E-Virus ; infektiöse Diarrhö ; lebensmittelübertragende Viren ; Norwalk/Norwalk-like Viren ; Rotavirus ; Virusübertragung ; Keywords Gastroenteritis viruses ; Hepatitis A virus ; Hepatitis E virus ; Infectious diarrhoea ; Foodborne viruses ; Norwalk/Norwalk-like viruses ; Rotavirus ; Virus transmission
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Until the 1970s, diagnostic methods for infectious diarrhoea were limited to bacteria and parasites, and the causative agent could be identified only in a few cases. But the causes of major foodborne diseases include bacteria, parasites and viruses as well. Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot multiply outside of their specific host. They remain infectious especially in conditions, such as refrigeration, designed to maintain good food quality. Viruses transmitted via food include the hepatitis-inducing viruses A and E, the gastroenteritis viruses e. g. Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses, Rota- and Astrovirus, Adenovirus and some of the Enteroviruses. Foodborne viruses are transmitted enterically. They are shed by faeces or during vomiting and infect by being ingested (faecal-oral, aerogene-oral). Due to the very high infectivity most of the outbreaks were reported for institutional settings like schools, children's day-care and geriatric facilities and hospitals. Proper conditions of hygiene, and exclusion of sick persons from handling food are important preventive measures to avoid faecal contamination of food.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bis in die 70er Jahre war die Diagnostik von infektiösen Diarrhöen auf den Nachweis von Bakterien und Parasiten beschränkt, und auslösende Erreger konnten nur in einigen Fällen ermittelt werden. Verbesserte Nachweismethoden zeigten, dass Lebensmittelinfektionen neben Bakterien und Parasiten zu einem großen Teil durch virale Erreger hervorgerufen werden können. Im Gegensatz zu den Bakterien können sich Viren nicht außerhalb eines lebenden Wirtes vermehren, bleiben aber besonders unter gekühlter Lagerhaltung lange Zeit infektiös. Zu den Lebensmittel-übertragbaren Viren gehören das Hepatitis A- und E-Virus, Gastroenteritisviren wie die Norwalk/Norwalk-like, Rota- und Astroviren, aber auch Adenoviren sowie einige Enteroviren. Ihre Verbreitung erfolgt auf fäkal-oralem bzw. aerogen-oralem Weg. Aufgrund ihrer hohen Infektiosität kann es besonders in Gemeinschaftseinrichtungen wie Schulen, Kindertagesstätten, in Alten- und Pflegeheimen sowie in Krankenhäusern zu Massenausbrüchen kommen. Um eine fäkale Verunreinigung von Lebensmitteln zu vermeiden, ist die exakte Einhaltung von Hygienevorschriften und der Ausschluss von erkrankten Personen von der Lebensmittelbereitung besonders wichtig.
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