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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Tryptophan ; transport ; lithium ; plasma-membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of lithium on the sodium-dependent high-affinity system for tryptophan uptake was examined in plasma membrane vesicles derived from rat brain. We demonstrated that Na+ could be replaced by lithium in the external medium and the presence of lithium produced an increase in theV max of the tryptophan transport whereas it had no significant effect on theK m for the substrate. Plasma membrane vesicles derived from synaptosomes obtained from long-term lithium-treated rats are able to accumulate tryptophan to a greater extent than normal rats and maintain a more negative membrane potential than controls. Our data support the idea that the stimulation by lithium of the high-affinity uptake system for tryptophan by maintaining adequate membrane potentials across the membrane, could lead to the stabilization of serotonin production, as has been demonstrated in long termlithium treatment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Poor mechanical properties of biological tissue are known to cause wear, leading to the failure of cardiac bioprostheses made of calf pericardium. Different chemical agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are presently being tested as possible inhibitors of the calcification process. The objective of this report was to determine the mechanical behavior of calf pericardium treated with SDS for 24 h and the influence of the suture on the mechanical properties of the tissue. Forty-eight samples were tested: 24 subjected to a standard treatment with glutaraldehyde (12 sewn with 4/0 silk suture thread) and 24 incubated with SDS for 24 h (12 sewn with the same suture thread). Each sutured and non-sutured sample was cut into two strips to yield paired samples. All were subjected to tensile stress to breaking point. The mean stress at breaking point in the non-sutured series treated with glutaraldehyde alone was 16.42 and 13.85 MPa depending on the region of the pericardium, while in the sutured samples subjected to glutaraldehyde the mean stress was 7.50 and 7.63 MPa, respectively, differences which were statistically significant (p = 0.03 and p = 0.003, respectively) when the means for non-sutured samples from equivalent regions treated with glutaraldehyde were compared. The stress at breaking point was lower in the SDS-treated series, ranging between 2.60 and 3.56 MPa. The mathematical functions that govern the stress/strain or deformation were obtained. In the series of pericardium treated with SDS, deformations of 10% were produced with stresses of under 0.4 MPa, an outcome that is intolerable from the constructive point of view. We established a regression model that enabled us to determine the mechanical behavior of a sutured sample by testing a contiguous piece of tissue, with a high correlation coefficient (r 〉 0.99). We consider this finding to be of interest in the selection of pericardium for use in the construction of leaflets for cardiac bioprostheses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The use of biomaterials for reconstruction of the ossicular chain in middle ear involves a different approach from that associated with other regions of the organism. The features of the implantation site and the composition of the prosthesis are responsible for functional failures that result from deterioration or extrusion of the implant. Since the fifties, different types of materials, both biological and synthetic, have been employed in the attempt to achieve the ideal middle ear prosthesis. We present a reprospective study of 166 patients who underwent ossicular chain reconstruction involving autografts and homografts of cartilage or auditory ossicle (n=104) or synthetic prostheses (n=62). We compare prostheses of different compositions on the basis of the cases of extrusion and the histological deterioration encountered with each. In our experience, polymers are associated with frequent extrusion and deterioration of the biomaterial, while the results are better with biological implants and those made of hydroxyapatite.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The biological heart prostheses present midterm and long term problems owing to the progressive deterioration and calcification of the tissue. In the attempt to study the latter problem, we have compared the effectiveness of anticalcification treatments in calf pericardium samples implanted into female Wistar rats after undergoing the following procedures: Group I, control, treatment with glutaraldehyde; group II, treated with 0.1m Al3+ for 24 h; and group III, subjected to lipid removal by chemical treatment with chloroform/methanol for 1 h. Positive results were obtained with both treatments, but the results after 60 days of implantation were more favourable with lipid removal than with Al3+ treatment.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Poor mechanical properties of biological tissue are known to cause wear, leading to the failure of cardiac bioprostheses made of calf pericardium. Different chemical agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are presently being tested as possible inhibitors of the calcification process. The objective of this report was to determine the mechanical behavior of calf pericardium treated with SDS for 24 h and the influence of the suture on the mechanical properties of the tissue. Forty-eight samples were tested: 24 subjected to a standard treatment with glutaraldehyde (12 sewn with 4/0 silk suture thread) and 24 incubated with SDS for 24 h (12 sewn with the same suture thread). Each sutured and nonsutured sample was cut into two strips to yield paired samples. All were subjected to tensile stress to breaking point. The mean stress at breaking point in the nonsutured series treated with glutaraldehyde alone was 16.42 and 13.85 MPa, depending on the region of the pericardium, while in the sutured samples subjected to glutaraldehyde the mean stress was 7.50 and 7.63 MPa, respectively, differences which were statistically significant (p=0.03 and p=0.003, respectively) when the means for nonsutured samples from equivalent regions treated with glutaraldehyde were compared. The stress at breaking point was lower in the SDS-treated series, ranging between 2.60 and 3.56 MPa. The mathematical functions that govern the stress/strain or deformation were obtained. In the series of pericardium treated with SDS, deformations of 10% were produced with stresses of under 0.4 MPa, an outcome that is intolerable from the constructive point of view. We established a regression model that enabled us to determine the mechanical behavior of a sutured sample by testing a contiguous piece of tissue, with a high correlation coefficient (r 〉 0.99). We consider this finding to be of interest in the selection of pericardium for use in the construction of leaflets for cardiac bioprostheses. ©2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Comparisons were made of the tissue response to the implantation of two different polytetrafluoroethylene prostheses: Soft Tissue Patch (STP) and Mycro Mesh (MM). A 7 × 5 cm prosthesis of STP (n=12) or MM (n=12) was implanted into a defect of the same size (involving all layers except skin) created in the anterior abdominal wall in 24 New Zealand rabbits. The prostheses were anchored to the recipient tissue, in direct contact with the intestinal loops and connective tissue. After 14, 30, 60 and 90 days, groups of six implants were studied macroscopically and samples were taken to be processed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemical studies and tensiometry. All animals were valid for the study. In three cases STP implants presented very loose adhesions in the peripheral zones corresponding to the sutures. They were also observed on three MM implants, in the area of the perforations. Light and scanning microscopy revealed the formation of a capsule of scar tissue surrounding both types of prosthesis. At day 90, bridges of connective tissue had formed in the perforated areas of MM. Good vascularization was established in the areas of recipient tissue corresponding to both implants. The macrophage reaction to both biomaterials was maximal at 14 days, after which it progressively decreased until day 90. Tensile testing revealed no significant differences between the two biomaterials. It is concluded that (a) behaviour in the peritoneal interface is similar in the two prostheses, (b) both biomaterials become encapsulated rather than integrated into the recipient tissue, (c) the foreign body reaction does not determine the success or failure of the implants, (d) The perforations of the MM prosthesis do not increase its resistance to stress, or at least not after 90 days of implantation into rabbit abdominal wall.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the study was to determine the shearing stress exerted by the suture thread under conditions of normal working stress. Thirty-six samples of calf pericardium, similar to that employed in the manufacture of bioprosthetic cardiac valve leaflets, were subjected to tensile testing. Prior to the trial, a continuous suture was sewn in the central zone of each sample, at a 45° angle to the longest axis of the sample, using commercially-available threads (silk, Gore-Tex, Surgilene and nylon). Application of the Mohr circle for combined wear revealed that the shearing stress ranged between 2.68-fold greater (for samples sewn with silk) and 5.48-fold greater (for samples sewn with nylon) than the working tensile stress in the region of the suture. It is concluded that the shearing stress is responsible for the limited durability of sutured samples of calf pericardium prepared to simulate bioprosthetic cardiac valve leaflets. © 1998 Chapman & Hall
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phenylalanine is accumulated in the genetically linked deficiency phenylketonuria. The effect ofl-phenylalanine on the transport of tryptophan was studied using membrane vesicles from rat-brain synaptosomes. Phenylalanine at similar concentrations to those found in phenylketonuric patients competitively inhibits tryptophan uptake, with aK i of the same order as theK m for tryptophan. This inhibition could be responsible for the depletion of serotonin found in phenylketonuria.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Since the development of cardiac bioprostheses, numerous chemical treatments have been assayed to prevent mineralization. The effectiveness of chemical treatments that eliminate lipids from the tissue was tested by combining two models. First, handmade bovine pericardial bioprostheses, subjected to chemical treatment with chloroform/methanol and glutaraldehyde or treated with glutaraldehyde alone for use as controls, were subjected to mechanical stress in a heart valve, accelerated wear tester (100 × 106 consecutive cycles). Then, the bioprostheses were unstitched and tissue samples were taken from the portion subjected to maximal stress (P1) and from that surrounding the sewing ring, which had not been subjected to mechanical stress (P2), for subcutaneous implantation. After 21 and 60 days of implantation, we observed calcification of the samples subjected to mechanical stress, even after delipidating treatment, with no significant differences with respect to the control group. However, the treated samples from the portion not subjected to mechanical stress presented a slighter accumulation of calcium after 60-day implantation (5.60 ± 3.09 mg Ca2+/g dry weight of tissue) versus the control group (47.17 ± 20.4 mg Ca2+/g dry weight of tissue), the difference of which was statistically significant (p 〈 0.01). At the time of these medium-term studies, marked calcification was observed in tissue subjected to delipidating treatment in the zones that underwent mechanical stress. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: A material subjected to traction stress increases in length; if we maintain the elongation constant, the stress varies over a period of time. This phenomenon has been referred to as relaxation. The purpose of this study was to define a mathematical law that relates the variation in stress to time when elongation remains constant in bovine pericardium. The mathematical function obtained after assaying 34 samples to the point of relaxation, subjected to initial stresses ranging from 0.17-10.07 MPa, responds to the following equation: y = -0.0252 + 0.953 α - (0.0165 + 0.015 α)lnt, where γ is the stress withstood at an instant in time, t, after initial stress α. A normogram, validated by assays of up to 6,340 min duration (4.40 days), is presented for graphic calculation, permitting the computation of the loss of stress due to relaxation of this biomaterial, with initial stresses ranging from 1-10 MPa. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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