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  • Articles  (70)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: container–solute interaction ; container compatibility ; solute migration in polymers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Solute stability in solution, in addition to solute–polymer interaction properties and the total solute available pool, impacts the interaction between a polymeric container and a parenteral product, specifically in terms of the migration of trace polymer components into the contained solution. A specific solute/polymer system has been studied with respect to properties impacting the magnitude and rate of solute migration from the polymer into solution. The solute, an alkyl ester, originates in a polyolefin composite packaging material. Solute degradation kinetics were studied as a function of solution temperature and pH. Solute–polymer interaction properties including the equilibrium binding constant and diffusion coefficient were obtained. An accumulation rate model is developed for the determination of the solution phase concentration of the liberated solute as a function of storage time and conditions. Coupling the model with the properties of the polymer–solute system studied provides a tool that accurately predicts solute accumulation behavior in a representative parenteral product configuration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 363 (1974), S. 333-342 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary By immunisation of rabbits with rat parathyroid-(PTG)-homogenates or bovine PTG-homogenates antisera with species- and organ-specific antibodies against rat PTG or bovine PTG, respectively, have been produced. After passive immunisation of rats with the antiserum against rat PTG a marked immunoparathyroiditis developed in three out of 15 rats. Hypoparathyroidism, however, was not observed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Vergiftung trächtiger Meerschweinchen mit Monojodacetat oder Fluorid als Hemmern des Kohlenhydratabbaues führt innerhalb weniger Minuten zu kennzeichnenden morphologischen Veränderungen am Syncytiotrophoblasten der Placenta: Neben Schwellungen der Mitochondrien, des endoplasmatischen Reticulums und der Golgizisternen sowie einer Kernpyknose treten in großer Zahl Plasmapolypen auf −0,5–20 μ große, organellarme Protrusionen des Syncytiums in den mütterlichen Blutraum. Bei Langzeitversuchen bis zu 10 Tagen führen diese Plasmapolypen zu Placentainfarkten. Die degenerativen Veränderungen im Syncytium, besonders die Plasmapolypenbildung mit ihren Folgen, können unterdrückt werden, wenn der Citratcyclus trotz Blockade des Embden-Meyerhof-Weges durch Substitution mit Pyruvat oder Lactat gespeist wird. Auch die nicht experimentell provozierten Plasmapolypen der gesunden Meerschweinchenplacenta können durch diese Substitution verhindert werden. Gleichartige Plasmapolypen werden in menschlichen Gestoseplacenten gebildet, führen auch hier zu Infarkten und werden als fremdeiweiß-haltige Korpuskeln in den mütterlichen Kreislauf eingeschwemmt. Störungen des Kohlenhydratabbaues und der Energiefreisetzung im Syncytium kommen deswegen als mögliche Faktoren bei der Gestose-Pathogenese in Betracht. Es wird der Versuch empfohlen, der Plasmapolypenbildung bei Gestosen durch Substitution mit Pyruvat vorzubeugen.
    Notes: Summary The poisoning of pregnant guinea pigs with monoiodineacetate or fluoride as inhibitors of the carbohydrate metabolism causes characteristical morphological alterations in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta in a few minutes. Besides swelling of the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi cisternae and a nuclear pyknosis there are many of plasmic protrusions—0,5 to 20 μ in diameter—of the syncytium into the maternal blood space. At longtime experiments up to 10 days these plasmic protrusions cause placental infarcts. The degenerative alterations in the syncytium, especially the formation of plasmic protrusions can be oppressed if the citrate cycle will be substituted with pyruvate or lactate in spite of inhibition of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The non experimental provoked plasmic protrusions of the healthy guinea pig placenta can be oppressed by this substitution, too. Plasmic protrusions of the same kind are formed in human toxemia placentae, cause infarcts here, too, and are brought into the maternal blood-circulations as foreign protein containing corpuscels. Alterations of the carbohydrat metabolism and the energy liberation in the syncytium can be come into question as possible factors at the pathogenesis of toxemia. It will be recommended to prevent the formation of plasmic protrusions by infusion of pyruvate in gestosis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 392 (1987), S. 397-405 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: drug delivery ; ion exchange ; micromembrane ; dopamine hydrochloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The exchange of pharmaceutically significant amounts of dopamine across a micromembrane is reported, establishing the practical basis for such a drug delivery system. Drug release was accomplished with a commercially available device initially intended for use as a postcolumn reactor in ion chromatography. Release of other ionic drugs (e.g., methyldopate and piperacillin) was also achieved but with a lesser efficiency than was dopamine, presumably because of a size effect. The effect of releasing ion identification and concentration, the flow rate of the delivery solution and concentration of drug in the device reservoir on the drug release efficiency was examined. Under optimal conditions the efficiency approaches 80%, and 1 mg of drug is released/ml of delivery solution. Alternatively, operating conditions can be changed so that magnitude of release is optimized but absolute efficiency is sacrificed. Under such conditions the magnitude of dopamine release approaches 2 mg/ml but exchange efficiency is approximately 25%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: solute/polymer interaction ; extractables ; leaching ; material compatibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 11 (1994), S. 984-989 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: elastomeric reservoirs ; drug binding ; drug compatibility ; partition coefficients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Drug binding by an elastomeric infusion device reservoir was assessed by measuring its ability to bind fifteen model solutes. Octanol/water (o/w) and hexane/water (h/w) partition coefficients were regressed against the reservoir’s solute equilibrium binding constant to generate a binding model. The reservoir’s drug binding ability was calculated with the model and drug partition coefficients, which were determined for seventeen commonly infused drugs including tobramycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, piperacillin, lidocaine, morphine, ceftriaxone, imipenem-cilastatin, amphotericin B, ticarcillin and clavulanate, pentamidine, vancomycin, foscarnet, desferoxamine, acyclovir, fluconazole and vinblastine. Formulations studied included 0.9% Saline and 5% Dextrose. With the exception of lidocaine, imipenem, vinblastine and fluconazole, octanol/ formulation and hexane/formulation partition coefficients were too low to be measured for these drugs. Thus, the majority of the drugs, when reconstituted in 0.9% Saline or 5% Dextrose, will not be bound by the reservoirs. The magnitude of drug loss for the most highly bound species, fluconazole, is less than 2%. Therefore the reservoirs used in this study are essentially inert with respect to binding of the drugs evaluated in this study.
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