Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 13 (1988), S. 663-669 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Gene expression ; steroid hormones ; receptor ; sex differences ; adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Contrary to earlier belief, the genetic constitution of each cell of the body (“nature”) is subject to modulation by environmental factors (“nurture”) which act throughout the life of the organism to shape the individual characteristics. The nervous system adapts and changes with the environment that the organism experiences through genomic activity controlled by chemical messengers from other nerve cells and from endocrine secretions. The nervous system expresses receptors for a number of circulating hormones, and the location of these hormone receptors has revealed a great deal about the neuroanatomy of neuroendocrine and behavioral control processes. The brain controls the endocrine system through the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and it responds to circulating hormones throughout each stage of life. These effects begin during early development (eg., sexual differentiation of the brain; effects of maternal or neonatal stress). They continue in adult life in response to cyclic events (eg., season of year; time of day, controlling reproduction and daily activity-sleep rhythms of behavior); and they also include the behavior of other animals which alters hormone output. Hormones also operate during the aging process and under conditions which induce neural damage such as hypoxia and stress. This overview summarizes involvement of steroid hormones of gonads and adrenals in many of these processes and also examines the features of the genomic activity which is modified by these hormones. This area of research is fruitful because it brings together molecular, anatomical, physiological and behavioral approaches in an attempt to understand the longterm plasticity of the nervous system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: (Na + K)-ATPase ; deoxycorticosterone ; salt intake ; mineralocorticoids ; in situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. We have usedin situ hybridization techniques to determine the mRNA for (Na + K)ATPase in 20 brain regions from control rats and rats treated with high doses of deoxycorticosterone (DOC). 2. DOC-treated rats developed a salt appetite following the second hormone administration on alternate days and were used after the fourth DOC administration. 3. DOC treatment did not change the number of silver grains/cell deposited in cells from Ca1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 hippocampal subfields, dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, medial preoptic area (POA), substantia nigra, and periventricular gray matter. 4. Nonsignificant reductions were detected in lateral POA, medial and lateral septum, caudate-putamen, and three amygdaloid nuclei (cortical, basolateral, and central) from DOC-treated rats. 5. Significant reductions were obtained, after DOC administration, in arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei and medial and lateral amygdala. 6. The results suggested that regulation of theβ-subunit mRNA of (Na + K)-ATPase may be related to the central actions of mineralocorticoids in the control of salt intake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: adrenal steroids ; plasticity ; hippocampal neurons ; stress ; neuron loss ; glutamate ; serotonin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Allostasis ; allostatic load ; aging brain ; excitatory amino acid ; excitotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adaptive responses of the body to challenges, often known as “stressors”, consists of active responses that maintain homeostasis. This process of adaptation is known as “allostasis”, meaning “achieving stability through change”. Many systems of the body show allostasis, including the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and they help to re-establish or maintain homeostasis through adaptation. The brain also shows allostasis, involving the activation of nerve cell activity and the release of neurotransmitters. When the individual is challenged repeatedly or when the allostatic systems remain turned on when no longer needed, the mediators of allostasis can produce a wear and tear on the body that has been termed “allostatic load”. Examples of allostatic load include the accumulation of abdominal fat, the loss of bone minerals and the atrophy of nerve cells in the hippocampus. Circulating stress hormones play a key role, and, in the hippocampus, excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors are important mediators of neuronal atrophy. The aging brain seems to be more vulnerable to such effects, although there are considerable individual differences in vulnerability that can be developmentally determined. Yet, at the same time, excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors mediate important types of plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the brain retains considerable resilience in the face of stress, and estrogens appear to play a role in this resilience. This review discusses the current status of work on underlying mechanisms for these effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7365
    Keywords: protein synthesis ; ventromedial hypothalamus ; preoptic area ; estradiol ; progesterone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished usingin vitro 35S-methionine and35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypothalamus (rat) ; Differentiation ; Transplant ; Histofluorescence ; Immunocytochemistry ; Autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hypothalamic tissue from 16 to 18-day fetal rats was transplanted onto the choroidal pia overlying the superior colliculus in adult female rats. After survival periods of 2 weeks to 19 months, brains containing transplants were processed for monoamine fluorescence histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for three neuropeptides (LHRH, somatostatin, neurophysin), or for autoradiography in ovariectomized hosts that received [3H] estradiol. Most of the transplants survived and retained or increased in size; 14 of 25 transplants examined by fluorescence histochemistry were found to contain median eminence-like structures. In almost all of the transplants that were stained for neuropeptides, beaded processes and occasional cell bodies were observed. Although immunoreactive fibers were found near blood vessels, no palisade arrangement typical of the normal median eminence was evident. Each of the hypothalamic transplants on which steroid autoradiography was performed contained clusters of estrophilic neurons, the intensity of labeling of which was comparable to that seen in the host hypothalamus. These results indicate that many characteristic morphological and chemical features of the hypothalamus, which are not evident in the 16 to 18-day fetus, are elaborated in transplants during the survival period in the host. Transplantation of fetal hypothalamus to adult choroidal pia thus appears to be a valuable approach for studying the factors, humoral or neural, that regulate the differentiation of this brain region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: hippocampus ; synaptogenesis ; neurogenesis ; dendrite ; atrophy ; stress ; glucocorticoid ; estrogen ; N-methyl-d-aspartate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. The hippocampus is an important brain structure for working and spatial memory in animals and humans, and it is also a vulnerable as well as plastic brain structure as far as sensitivity to epilepsy, ischemia, head trauma, stress, and aging. 2. The hippocampus is also a target brain area for the actions of hormones of the steroid/thyroid hormone family, which traditionally have been thought to work by regulating gene expression. “Genomic” actions of steroid hormones involve intracellular receptors, whereas “nongenomic” effects of steroids involve putative cell surface receptors. Although this distinction is valid, it does not go far enough in addressing the variety of mechanisms that steroid hormones use to produce their effects on cells. This is because cell surface receptors may signal changes in gene expression, while genomic actions sometimes affect neuronal excitability, often doing so quite rapidly. 3. Moreover, steroid hormones and neurotransmitters may operate together to produce effects, and sometimes these effects involve collaborations between groups of neurons. For example, a number of steroid actions in the hippocampus involve the coparticipation of excitatory amino acids. These interactions are evident for the regulation of synaptogenesis by estradiol in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus and for the induction of dendritic atrophy of CA3 neurons by repeated stress as well as by glucocorticoid injections. In addition, neurogenesis in the adult and developing dentate gyrus is “contained” by adrenal steroids as well as by excitatory amino acids. In each of these three examples, NMDA receptors are involved. 4. These results not only point to a high degree of interdependency between certain neurotransmitters and the actions of steroid hormones, but also emphasize the degree to which structural plasticity is an important aspect of steroid hormone action in the adult as well as developing nervous system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2800
    Keywords: homosexuality ; diethylstilbestrol ; prenatal hormones ; sexual orientation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Thirty women aged 17 to 30 years with documented prenatal exposure to the nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared to thirty women of similar demographic characteristics from the same medical clinic who had a history of abnormal Pap smear findings. A subsample of the DES women were also compared to their DES-unexposed sisters. Sexual orientation in its multiple components was assessed by systematic semistructured interviews. In comparison to both control groups, the DES women showed increased bisexuality and homosexuality. However, about 75% of the DES women were exclusively or nearly exclusively heterosexual. Nonhormonal and hormonal interpretations of these findings are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Prazosin ; Quantitative autoradiography ; Noradrenergic system ; α 1-Adrenergic receptor ; Japanese quail ; Coturnix coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianiformes)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neuroanatomical distribution of α 1-adrenergic receptors was studied in Japanese quail by quantitative in vitro autoradiography using the specific antagonist [3H]prazosin as the ligand. The presence of saturable (Bmax 〈200 fmol/mg protein) high affinity (Kd 〈 0.12 nM) binding sites was detected by saturation analysis. High concentrations of [3H]prazosin binding sites were detected in the archistriatum/pars ventralis, the hippocampus, the cortex piriformis, the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, the dorsal thalamus, and the nucleus praetectalis. Lower concentrations were seen in the intercollicular nucleus, the lateral septum, and the posterior and tuberal hypothalamus. Very little binding was seen in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas. The relatively high number of binding sites identified in the telencephalic structures agrees well with previous mammalian studies. This is in contrast with the pattern in the anterior hypothalamus where, in mammals, a number of nuclei have been reported to contain a high receptor density.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: antisensense oligonucleotides ; pertussis toxin ; splenocytes ; Nb2 cells ; Giα ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In a previous report we shwed that glucocorticoed inhibition of cytosolic PLC activity correlated with a reduction in cytosolic Giα levels, suggesting that there may be a functional relationship between cytosolic PLC and cytosolic Giα. In order to establish the nature of the coupliing between cytosolic Giα and cytosolic PLC we examined the effects of Protein activators, and inhibitors on cytosolic PLC activity from rat spenocytes and the rat lymphoma cell line Nb 2, with [3H] PI and [3H]PIP2 as substrates. (1) Neither GTP nor its nonhydrolyzable analogue, GTPγS, at 100 μm had any effect on the calcium stimulated as well as the basal PLC activity. (2) Howevr, affinity purified antibodies to Giα1 and Giα2 inhibited soluble PLC activity, by 85% and 55%, respectively, with PI as substrate; with PIP2 as substrate, soluble PLC activity was inhibited 50-70% by antibodies to Gi1, whereas antibodies to Gi2 had little effect. (3)Administration of Giα1 antisense oligonucleotides to splenocytes for 48 h produced 25-40% decrease in cytosolic Giα1 levels compared to control. The soluble PLC activity with both PI and PIP2 as substrates was also reduced by 25-50% compared to control conditions. This suggest that cytosolic Giα is associated with the activation of splenocyte soluble PLC. (4) Pertussis toxin administered in vivo sugnificantly reduced cytosolic Giα immunoreactivity and soluble PLC activiry when PI was used as substrate, providing additional evidence that cytosolic Giα is associated with the activation of splencyte soluble PLC. (5) Another agent that has beeen used extensively to define G-protein coupled processes is NaF/AlCl3. NaF(4mM; with or without AlCl3 inhibited soluble PLC activity with PIP2 as substrate, in contrast ot the stimulatory effect that has been reported in the activation of membrane PLC. 6) because NaF can act as a protein phosphatase inhibitor, we also tested the effects of trifluoperzine (50 μm, TFP), an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2B; TFP (50 μm) signigicantly inhibited soluble PLC activity PI was used as substrate. These results suggest a direct involvement of cytosolic Giα in the activation of soluble PLC form splenocytes. Other questions pertaining to the functional significance, the nature, and possible substrate preference of the splenocyte Giα coupled PLC is addressed in the second paper.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...