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  • Articles  (15)
  • Articles: DFG German National Licenses  (15)
  • Polymer and Materials Science  (12)
  • chemical protection  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: ormocer ; coatings ; chemical protection ; stainless steel ; PMMA-ZrO2 ; corrosion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The chemical protection of 316 L stainless steel coated with ORMOCER coatings of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and ZrO2 has been verified. The coatings were dip-coated on the substrates from sols prepared by mixing zirconium propoxide (ZrOC3H7)4, isopropanol (C3H7OH), glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH), polymethylmethacrylate and water under application of ultrasounds. The films were heat treated between 40 and 300°C in air up to 20 h. Their morphology was studied by electron scanning microscopy (SEM). Their anticorrosion behavior was analysed in 0.5M-H2SO4 solutions through potentiodynamic polarization curves at room temperature. The influence of the sol preparation, coating composition as well as of the duration and temperature of heat treatments on the corrosion parameters is reported. The films act as geometric blocking layers against the corrosive media and increase the lifetime of the substrate up to a factor 30.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: ormocer ; coatings ; chemical protection ; stainless steel ; PMMA-ZrO2 ; corrosion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The chemical protection of 316 L stainless steel coated with ORMOCER coatings of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and ZrO2 has been verified. The coatings were dip-coated on the substrates from sols prepared by mixing zirconium propoxide (ZrOC3H7)4, isopropanol (C3H7OH), glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH), polymethylmethacrylate and water under application of ultrasounds. The films were heat treated between 40 and 300°C in air up to 20 h. Their morphology was studied by electron scanning microscopy (SEM). Their anticorrosion behavior was analysed in 0.5M-H2SO4 solutions through potentiodynamic polarization curves at room temperature.The influence of the sol preparation, coating composition as well as of the duration and temperature of heat treatments on the corrosion parameters is reported. The films act as geometric blocking layers against the corrosive media and increase the lifetime of the substrate up to a factor 30.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: sol-gel coatings ; chemical protection ; stainless steel ; ZrO2 ; corrosion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract ZrO2 coatings deposited on 316 L stainless steel sheets were synthesized by sol-gel method using Zr(OC3H7)4 as precursor and isopropanol, glacial acetic acid, and water as solvents for application with ultrasounds. Different solutions for dip-coating were prepared with compositions varying between 0.025 and 0.9 mol/dm3 of ZrO2. X-ray diffraction shows that the films densified at 800°C are crystalline with a tetragonal structure. The thickness of the coatings varied from 0.35–0.75 μm. The influence of the ZrO2 coatings on the corrosion behavior of stainless steel substrates in aqueous NaCl was studied through potentiodynamic polarization curves at 1 mV/s. The values of the electrochemical parameters allow for an explanation of the role of the films in the increased resistance of steel against corrosion in moderately aggressive environments.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The transesterification reaction in the molten state of ester groups of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers and ethylene acrylic ester (EMA) copolymers has been used to crosslink the chains of this polymeric system. The relative EVA copolymers (or EMA copolymers) concentration dependence of the network formation by co-crosslinking of EVA/EMA miscible blends has been assessed. EVA/EMA networks were characterized by swelling experiments, rheological measurements, and determination of the extent of the reaction through a chromatographic technique. All results can be compared in a master curve. The influence of the polydispersity and the microstructure of EVA and EMA samples was put in evidence. On the other hand, a scaling law (v2∼Mc-3/5) was observed in agreement with predictions of the Flory-Rhener expression. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie 47 (1975), S. 61-77 
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: When the ozonisation of bulk or suspension poly(vinylchloride) is carried out in tetrachloroethane solution between 0-120°C the molecular weight decreases continuously and the rate of breaking of chains deduced from the intrinsic viscosity variation is constant under isothermal conditions. Whatever the time and temperature of ozonisation may be, at every breaking, β and α chlorinated acid groups are introduced which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration in dimethylformamide. Besides these functions, peroxide groups have also been identified and their concentration has been determined for different times and temperatures of ozonisation.This study permits to propose two mechanisms to explain the breaking of chains. The first implies the previous dehydrochlorination of the polymer and the second the formation of unstable peroxides which by decomposition cause the breaking of chains.
    Notes: Quelle que soit la nature du polychlorure de vinyle (masse ou suspension) l'action de l'ozone en milieu homogène dans le tétrachloroéthane provoque la décroissance continue de la masse moléculaire dans le domaine de température 0-120°C et la vitesse de coupure des chaînes déduite des variations de viscosité est constante en conditions isothermes.Quels que soient le temps et la température d'ozonisation, à chaque point de coupure apparaissent des fonctions acides α et β chlorées qui ont été caractérisées par spectroscopie infra-rouge, RMN haute résolution et dosage potentiométrique en milieu diméthylformamide. Outre ces fonctions, des peroxydes ont égé également identifiés dans le polymère et on a suivi leur concentration en fonction des conditions d'ozonisation.Cette étude permet de proposer deux mécanismes pour expliquer la coupure des chaînes, l'un suppose une déhydrochloruration préalable du polymère et l'autre la formation de peroxydes instables qui en se décomposant provoqueraient la coupure des chaînes.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Whatever the state of the iron compounds as smoke suppressant during the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), they lead rapidly to native αFe2O3 in the char residue left after dehydrochlorination. It causes incandescence of the char residue and catalyzes its oxidation into carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide that contributes to decreasing the amount of available carbon for the soot formation after self-ignition. FeCl2 and FeCl3 are the precursors of αFe2O3, which is the true compound as smoke suppressant. Nevertheless, as intermediate, iron chlorides are able to modify the degradation processes, and they favor the formation of light tars instead of heavy tars. For that reason the iron compounds cause the formation of smoke at lower temperature than for pure PVC, but, as αFe2O3 is formed, the smoke production levels off and then decreases. The higher the ease of the iron compounds to give chlorides through reaction with HCI and further native αFe2O3, the higher the ease of the additive to cause the oxidation of the char residue sooner and in consequence to decrease the smoke level. In the PVC combustion three main steps may be distinguised: dehydrochlorination step between 200-300°C; tars aerosols formation from the char residue between 300°C and self-ignition; at temperature higher than self-ignition, formation of soot from the previous tars as precursors.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polyethylene ; poly(butylene terephthalate) ; blend ; rheology ; Palierne's model ; morphology ; differential scanning calorimetry ; crystallization ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Crystallization at high supercooling of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) droplets dispersed in a molten polyethylene (PE) matrix was investigated through rheological and DSC experiments. The Palierne's emulsion model was used as a theoretical framework for studying the viscoelastic behavior of the blends in different ranges of temperature: on the one hand, when the two polymers are molten (T 〉 225°C) and on the other hand, when PBT droplets are at high supercooling in the molten PE matrix (130°C 〈 T 〈 205°C). From rheological experimental evidences it was shown that molten and solidified droplets coexist at high supercooling. The Palierne's model was then successfully adapted to take into account the three phases (molten PE, molten PBT droplets, and solidified PBT droplets). The evolution of the behavior with the temperature is consistent with the growing amount of crystallized droplets. Moreover, a calculation taking into account the droplets size distribution and the number of nuclei is introduced to explain the crystallization behavior of three different blend ratios.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2573-2585, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Iodine complexes of six monosubstituted polyacetylenes with methyl, ethyl, propyl, pentyl, t-butyl, and phenyl substituents have been characterized by electronic spectroscopy. UV spectra allow the determination of the nature and the amount of active species, and photoelectronic spectra confirm the nature of these species. These measurements indicate the presence of iodine in the I3- and I2 forms. The concentration of I3- is low (0.12-4.0 mol%), and it depends on the nature of the substitutent, but this amount does not decrease when the films are left under vacuum. On the other hand, the adsorption of ε high concentration of iodine is possible; this adsorption is governed by a diffusion mechanism and is reversible. Iodine doping leads to a cis-to-trans isomerization of the polymers, except for poly(3-3-dimethyl-1-butyne), which can be isomerized to the cis or to the trans form, depending on the solvent employed. Electrical properties of polymer I3- complexes are also reported. Conductivities of about 10-4 Ω-1 cm-1 are obtained for all polymers in the presence of an excess of iodine.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0449-296X
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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