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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. METHODS: For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers. RESULTS: We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) 〈60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26209739
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Temperature Regulation ; Control of Shivering ; Central Thermosensitive Structures ; Spinal Cord ; Diencephalon ; Temperaturregulation ; Steuerung des Kältezitterns ; zentrale thermosensitive Strukturen ; Rückenmark ; Zwischenhirn
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In young guinea pigs the ascending pathways from the spinal thermosensitive region were studied by means of 1. microelectrode recording and 2. micro-electrocoagulation. In the first series of studies, impulse frequency was recorded from single units of the spinothalamic tract which responded to a temperature rise in the spinal segments C5-T2 with an increase of discharge frequency. At a spinal cord temperature of 38–39° C these units showed a firing rate of 1–5 imp./sec; local heating of the spinal cord (dT/dt=0.1° C/sec) to 40–41° C caused an increase in discharge frequency to 20–25 imp./sec. The mean static impulse frequency was 3 imp./sec at a spinal cord temperature of 39° C, and 10 imp./sec at a spinal cord temperature of 42.5° C. In the second series of studies bilateral RF-coagulations were carried out in different sites of the diencephalon. These experiments showed that the ascending fibres from the spinal thermosensitive region connect the thermosensitive spinal region with a hypothalamic “temperature control centre”.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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