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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Resumé Par une analyse unit- et multifactorielle de 3926 cas de cancers gastriques recueillis entre 1981 et 1991, on a confirmé la valeur pronostique de plusieurs facteurs clinicopathologiques et on a évalué l'efficacité d'une immunothérapie postopératoire comportant de l'OK-432, du 5-FU et de la mitomycine dans le cancer gastrique du stade III. On a calculé les taux de survie à cinq ans pour chaque catégorie de facteur pronostique et par analyse unifactorielle, on a démontré une différence significative pour la plupart de ces facteurs tels que l'âge, la profondeur d'invasion, les métastases ganglionnaires, le site primitif de la tumeur, la différentiation histologique et l'aspect macroscopique. Il n'y avait pas, par contre, de différence significative en ce qui concerne le sexe. Par analyse multifactorielle, on a mis en évidence une différence significative concernant la profondeur d'invasion et les métastases ganglionnaires (p〈0.001), ainsi que l'aspect macroscopique, le site et la différentiation de la tumeur (p〈0.05). En ce qui concerne le traitement postopératoire, l'immunochimiochirurgic était plus effective chez les patients stade III (p〈0.05). En conclusion, le pronostic du cancer gastrique peut être évalué selon plusieurs facteurs indépendants et l'immunochimiochirugie peut être un traitement efficace en cas de cancer gastrique avancé.
    Abstract: Resumen Se realizó análisis uni y multivariable de 3926 pacientes seleccionados con cáncer gástrico tratados en el lapso de 1981 a 1991, con el fín de confírmar el valor de diversos factores clínicopatológicos de pronóstico y de evaluar la eficacia de la immunoquimitoterapia postoperatoria con OK-432, 5-FU y Mitomicina-C en el cáncer gástrico en estado III. Se determinaron las tasas de sobrevida a cinco años para cada categoría de las variables de pronóstico, y en el análisis univariable la mayoría de las mismas, incluyendo edad, profundidad de la invasión tumoral, metástasis ganglionares linfáticas, ubicación del tumor primario, diferenciación histológica y tipo macroscópico, excepto por el sexo, demostraron alguna significación estadística. El análisis multivariable verificó los factores pronósticos de significación. La profundidad de la invasión y las metástasis ganglionares aparecieron como los factores más poderosos (p〈0.01) y el tipo macroscópico, la ubicación y la differenciación histológica aparecieron como factores adicionales de significación (p〈0.05). En cuanto al tratamiento postoperatorio, la inmunoquimiocirugía fue más efectiva en los pacientes en estado III (p〈0.05). En conclusión, planteamos que es posible predecir el pronóstico en el cáncer gástrico con mayor precisión basándose en tales factores independientes de pronóstico y que la inmunoquimiocirugía puede ser un valioso método de tratamiento en el cáncer gástrico avanzado.
    Notes: Abstract Univariate and multivariate analyses of 3926 selected gastric cancer patients collected between 1981 and 1991 were made to confirm several clinicopathologic prognostic factors and to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative immunochemotherapy with OK-432, 5-FU, and mitomycin C in stage III gastric cancer. Five-year survival rates for each category of prognostic variables were obtained; and in the univariate analysis, most of the factors (including age, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, location of primary tumor, histologic differentiation, and gross type except for sex) showed some significance. Multivariate analysis was conducted and verified significant prognostic factors. Depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis were found to be the most powerful factors (p〈0.001); gross type, location, and histologic differentiation were additional significant factors (p〈0.05). For postoperative treatment, immunochemosurgery was most effective in stage III patients (p〈0.05). In conclusion, we may predict a prognosis for gastric cancer more precisely on the basis of these independent prognostic factors, and immunochemosurgery may be a valuable means to treat advanced gastric cancer.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 18 (1974), S. 2589-2603 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Isothermal melt spinning experiments were carried out to investigate the elongational flow behavior and spinnability of polymer blends and a calcium carbonate-filled polypropylene. Blends chosen for study were mixtures of polystyrene (Dow Chemical, Styron 678) with high-density polyethylene (Union Carbide, DMDJ 4309), and mixtures of polystyrene (Dow Chemical, Styron 686) with high-density polyethylene (Union Carbide, DMDJ 4309). For the study, measurements were taken of the thread diameter by photographic techniques and of the thread tension by means of a Saxl tensiometer. These measurements were later used to determine the elongational viscosity of the material investigated. It was found that, in all the blends and filled systems investigated, the elongational viscosity decreases with elongation rate and that the relationship between the elongational viscosity and blending ratio is very complex. An attempt is made to offer explanations of the observed complicated relationship with the aid of microphotographs of fiber samples, which display the complexity of fiber morphology in two-phase systems. It was also found that there exists some correlation between the elongational viscosity and the maximum stretch ratio which may be considered as representing fiber spinnability.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effect of deformation history on the elongational behavior and spinnability of polypropylene melt was investigated by carrying out isothermal melt-spinning experiments. For the study, spinnerettes of different die geometries were used to investigate the effect, if any, of the entrance angle, the capillary length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, and the reservoir-to-capillary diameter (DR/D) ratio on the elongational behavior of molten threadlines. An experimental study was also carried out to investigate the phenomenon of draw resonance in the extrusion of polypropylene melts through spinnerettes of different die geometries. Draw resonance is the phenomenon which gives rise to pulsations in the threadline diameter when the stretch ratio is increased above a certain critical value. The results of our study show that the critical stretch ratio at which the onset of draw resonance starts to occur decreases as the L/D ratio is decreased, as the entrance angle is increased, as the DR/D ratio is increased, as the melt temperature is decreased, and as the shear rate in the die is increased. Of particular interest is the observation that, at 180°C, the severity of fiber nonuniformity increases as the stretch ratio is increased, whereas at 200°C and 220°C, the severity of fiber nonuniformity first increases and then decreases as the stretch ratio is increased considerably above the critical value. A rheological interpretation of the observed onset of draw resonance is presented with the aid of the independently determined rheological data.
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 20 (1976), S. 2609-2614 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Melt spinning experiments were carried out to investigate the elongational behavior and fiber morphology of multiphase polymer systems. Materials chosen for study were blends of calcium carbonate-filled polypropylene with general-purpose polystyrene and blends of calcium carbonate-filled polypropylene with high-impact polystyrene. The former is a three-phase system in which the CaCO3 particles are dispersed, and the latter is a four-phase system in which CaCO3 particles are dispersed, together with rubbery butadiene particles. Note that polypropylene is incompatible with the matrix of high-impact polystyrene. The experimental technique described in part I of this series was used to determine the elongational viscosity. With the four-phase system, the apparent elongational viscosity tends to increase as the stretch ratio is increased above a certain critical value which appears to be ca. 25. This transition does not occur with the three-phase system and is attributable to elongation of the suspended rubber particles. The addition of small amounts of HIPS to PP-CaCO3 increases spinnability in general, whereas larger amounts decrease spinnability.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 11 (1993), S. 486-489 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Anti-CD3 antibodies of some IgG subclasses are very potent T lymphocyte mitogens in vitro and, seemingly contradictorily, very effective immunosuppressive agents in vivo. Using hamster anti-murine CD3 monoclonal antibody, 2C11, as a model, we have found that 2C11.IgG, or its F(ab′)2 fragment, ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effect of mixing on the state of dispersion and rheological properties in the two-phase flow of polymer blends. For the study, blends of polystyrene and polypropylene were used, and two mixing devices were employed: a single-screw extruder combined with a “static mixer,” and a twin-screw compounding machine. Materials of various blending ratios were extruded at a constant temperature (200°C) through a capillary die having an L/D ratio of 20 (D = 0.125 in.). The state of dispersion in the two-phase system was investigated from pictures taken of the microstructure of the extrudate samples. It was found that different mixing devices have a profound influence on the state of dispersion of one polymer in another. Also determined were the rheological properties of the two-phase system investigated, from wall normal stress measurements. Our results show that, when shear stress is used as a parameter, the melt viscosity goes through a minimum, whereas the melt elasticity goes through a maximum. This is regardless of the type of mixing device employed, although the shapes of the curves are affected by the type employed. It is suggested that shear stress, instead of shear rate, be used in correlating the viscoelastic properties of two-phase polymer systems.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 20 (1976), S. 2905-2912 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 20 (1976), S. 2913-2918 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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