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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The enzyme γ-secretase catalyzes the intramembrane proteolytic cleavage that generates the amyloid β-peptide from the β-amyloid precursor protein. The presenilin (PS) protein is one of the four integral membrane protein components of the mature γ-secretase complex. The PS protein is itself subjected to endoproteolytic processing, generating stable N- and C-terminal fragment (NTF and CTF, respectively) heterodimers. Here we demonstrate that coexpression of PS1 NTF and CTF functionally mimics expression of the full-length PS1 protein and restores γ-secretase activity in PS-deficient mammalian cells. The coexpressed fragments re-associate with each other inside the cell, where they also interact with nicastrin, another γ-secretase complex component. Analysis of γ-secretase activity following the expression of mutant forms of NTF and CTF, under conditions bypassing endoproteolysis, indicated that the putatively catalytic Asp257 and Asp385 residues have a direct effect on γ-secretase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that expression of the wild-type CTF rescues endoproteolytic cleavage of C-terminally truncated PS1 molecules that are otherwise uncleaved and inactive. Recovery of cleavage is critically dependent on the integrity of Asp385. Taken together, our findings indicate that ectopically expressed NTF and CTF restore functional γ-secretase complexes and that the presence of full-length PS1 is not a requirement for proper complex assembly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE, protein; APOE, gene) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetically, the frequency of the ε4 allele is enriched in early-onset sporadic, late-onset familial, and common late-onset sporadic AD. ApoE is found in the extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits that are characteristic features of AD. In this study, we examined the interaction between Aβ and apoE isoforms. The apoE isoforms used in this study were either produced by stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) or were from human plasma. We report that when similar concentrations of the apoE isoforms were used, native nonpurified apoE3 from recombinant CHO-derived sources bound Aβ, but apoE4 did not. In fact, in our system, binding of recombinant apoE4 to Aβ was never detectable, even after incubation for 4 days. Furthermore, using the same assay conditions, native apoE2, like apoE3, binds Aβ avidly. Furthermore, when human plasma apoE isoforms are tested in Aβ binding experiments, apoE3 bound Aβ more avidly than apoE4, and a major apoE/Aβ complex (the 40-kDa form) was observed with plasma apoE3 but not apoE4. These data extend our understanding of apoE isoform-dependent binding of Aβ by associating apoE2 with efficient apoE/Aβ complex formation and demonstrate that native apoE3 (whether recombinant or derived from human plasma) forms sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable apoE/Aβ complexes more readily than native apoE4. The different Aβ-binding properties of native apoE4 versus native apoE3 provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which the APOE ε4 allele exerts its risk factor effects in AD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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