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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Purpose: Lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD) consists of doxorubicin contained within a heat-sensitive liposome. When heated to ≥40°C, LTLD locally releases a high concentration of doxorubicin. We aimed to determine whether adding LTLD improves the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions with a maximum diameter ( d max ) of 3 to 7 cm. Experimental Design: The HEAT Study was a randomized, double-blind, dummy-controlled trial of RFA ± LTLD. The 701 enrolled patients had to have ≤4 unresectable HCC lesions, at least one of which had a d max of 3 to 7 cm. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and a key secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Post hoc subset analyses investigated whether RFA duration was associated with efficacy. Results: The primary endpoint was not met; in intention-to-treat analysis, the PFS HR of RFA + LTLD versus RFA alone was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.18; P = 0.71], and the OS HR ratio was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.76–1.20; P = 0.67). Among 285 patients with a solitary HCC lesion who received ≥45 minutes RFA dwell time, the OS HR was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41–0.96; P 〈 0.05) in favor of combination therapy. RFA + LTLD had reversible myelosuppression similar to free doxorubicin. Conclusions: Adding LTLD to RFA was safe but did not increase PFS or OS in the overall study population. However, consistent with LTLD's heat-based mechanism of action, subgroup analysis suggested that RFA + LTLD efficacy is improved when RFA dwell time for a solitary lesion ≥45 minutes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 73–83. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Using gravitational microlensing, we detected a cold terrestrial planet orbiting one member of a binary star system. The planet has low mass (twice Earth's) and lies projected at ~0.8 astronomical units (AU) from its host star, about the distance between Earth and the Sun. However, the planet's temperature is much lower, 〈60 Kelvin, because the host star is only 0.10 to 0.15 solar masses and therefore more than 400 times less luminous than the Sun. The host itself orbits a slightly more massive companion with projected separation of 10 to 15 AU. This detection is consistent with such systems being very common. Straightforward modification of current microlensing search strategies could increase sensitivity to planets in binary systems. With more detections, such binary-star planetary systems could constrain models of planet formation and evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gould, A -- Udalski, A -- Shin, I-G -- Porritt, I -- Skowron, J -- Han, C -- Yee, J C -- Kozlowski, S -- Choi, J-Y -- Poleski, R -- Wyrzykowski, L -- Ulaczyk, K -- Pietrukowicz, P -- Mroz, P -- Szymanski, M K -- Kubiak, M -- Soszynski, I -- Pietrzynski, G -- Gaudi, B S -- Christie, G W -- Drummond, J -- McCormick, J -- Natusch, T -- Ngan, H -- Tan, T-G -- Albrow, M -- DePoy, D L -- Hwang, K-H -- Jung, Y K -- Lee, C-U -- Park, H -- Pogge, R W -- Abe, F -- Bennett, D P -- Bond, I A -- Botzler, C S -- Freeman, M -- Fukui, A -- Fukunaga, D -- Itow, Y -- Koshimoto, N -- Larsen, P -- Ling, C H -- Masuda, K -- Matsubara, Y -- Muraki, Y -- Namba, S -- Ohnishi, K -- Philpott, L -- Rattenbury, N J -- Saito, To -- Sullivan, D J -- Sumi, T -- Suzuki, D -- Tristram, P J -- Tsurumi, N -- Wada, K -- Yamai, N -- Yock, P C M -- Yonehara, A -- Shvartzvald, Y -- Maoz, D -- Kaspi, S -- Friedmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):46-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1251527.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. ; Warsaw University Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland. ; Turitea Observatory, Palmerston North, New Zealand. ; Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea. cheongho@astroph.chungbuk.ac.kr. ; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Warsaw University Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland. ; Warsaw University Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile. ; Auckland Observatory, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Possum Observatory, Patutahi, New Zealand. ; Farm Cove Observatory, Centre for Backyard Astrophysics, Pakuranga, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Possum Observatory, Patutahi, New Zealand. Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth, Australia. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242, USA. ; Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea. ; Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea. ; Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan. ; University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670, USA. ; Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand. ; Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232, Japan. ; Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan. ; Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550, Japan. ; Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautics, Tokyo 116-8523, Japan. ; School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. ; Mount John University Observatory, Post Office Box 56, Lake Tekapo 8770, New Zealand. ; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan. ; School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24994642" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: As silicon-based electronics approach the limit of improvements to performance and capacity through dimensional scaling, attention in the semiconductor field has turned to graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Its high mobility of charge carriers (electrons and holes) could lead to its use in the next generation of high-performance devices. Graphene is unlikely to replace silicon completely, however, because of the poor on/off current ratio resulting from its zero bandgap. But it could be used to improve silicon-based devices, in particular in high-speed electronics and optical modulators.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Kinam -- Choi, Jae-Young -- Kim, Taek -- Cho, Seong-Ho -- Chung, Hyun-Jong -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 16;479(7373):338-44. doi: 10.1038/nature10680.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712, South Korea. kn_kim@samsung.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22094694" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-10-05
    Description: Grain boundaries in graphene are formed by the joining of islands during the initial growth stage, and these boundaries govern transport properties and related device performance. Although information on the atomic rearrangement at graphene grain boundaries can be obtained using transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy, large-scale information regarding the distribution of graphene grain boundaries is not easily accessible. Here we use optical microscopy to observe the grain boundaries of large-area graphene (grown on copper foil) directly, without transfer of the graphene. This imaging technique was realized by selectively oxidizing the underlying copper foil through graphene grain boundaries functionalized with O and OH radicals generated by ultraviolet irradiation under moisture-rich ambient conditions: selective diffusion of oxygen radicals through OH-functionalized defect sites was demonstrated by density functional calculations. The sheet resistance of large-area graphene decreased as the graphene grain sizes increased, but no strong correlation with the grain size of the copper was revealed, in contrast to a previous report. Furthermore, the influence of graphene grain boundaries on crack propagation (initialized by bending) and termination was clearly visualized using our technique. Our approach can be used as a simple protocol for evaluating the grain boundaries of other two-dimensional layered structures, such as boron nitride and exfoliated clays.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duong, Dinh Loc -- Han, Gang Hee -- Lee, Seung Mi -- Gunes, Fethullah -- Kim, Eun Sung -- Kim, Sung Tae -- Kim, Heetae -- Ta, Quang Huy -- So, Kang Pyo -- Yoon, Seok Jun -- Chae, Seung Jin -- Jo, Young Woo -- Park, Min Ho -- Chae, Sang Hoon -- Lim, Seong Chu -- Choi, Jae Young -- Lee, Young Hee -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):235-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11562. Epub 2012 Oct 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034653" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-10-05
    Description: Graphene is a distinct two-dimensional material that offers a wide range of opportunities for membrane applications because of ultimate thinness, flexibility, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. We demonstrate that few- and several-layered graphene and graphene oxide (GO) sheets can be engineered to exhibit the desired gas separation characteristics. Selective gas diffusion can be achieved by controlling gas flow channels and pores via different stacking methods. For layered (3- to 10-nanometer) GO membranes, tunable gas transport behavior was strongly dependent on the degree of interlocking within the GO stacking structure. High carbon dioxide/nitrogen selectivity was achieved by well-interlocked GO membranes in high relative humidity, which is most suitable for postcombustion carbon dioxide capture processes, including a humidified feed stream.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Hyo Won -- Yoon, Hee Wook -- Yoon, Seon-Mi -- Yoo, Byung Min -- Ahn, Byung Kook -- Cho, Young Hoon -- Shin, Hye Jin -- Yang, Hoichang -- Paik, Ungyu -- Kwon, Soongeun -- Choi, Jae-Young -- Park, Ho Bum -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 4;342(6154):91-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1236098.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Republic of Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092738" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Highly active and durable bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts have been of pivotal importance for renewable energy conversion and storage devices, such as unitized regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Perovskite-based oxygen electrocatalysts have emerged as promising nonprecious metal bifunctional electrocatalysts, yet their catalytic activity and stability still remain to be improved. We report a high-performance oxygen electrocatalyst based on a triple perovskite, Nd 1.5 Ba 1.5 CoFeMnO 9– (NBCFM), which shows superior activity and durability for oxygen electrode reactions to single and double perovskites. When hybridized with nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO), the resulting NBCFM/N-rGO catalyst shows further boosted bifunctional oxygen electrode activity (0.698 V), which surpasses that of Pt/C (0.801 V) and Ir/C (0.769 V) catalysts and which, among the perovskite-based electrocatalysts, is the best activity reported to date. The superior catalytic performances of NBCFM could be correlated to its oxygen defect–rich structure, lower charge transfer resistance, and smaller hybridization strength between O 2p and Co 3d orbitals.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Objectives The number of paediatric patients visiting the emergency department (ED) continues to rise. In South Korea, approximately 25% of the patients who visit the ED are paediatric patients. In the USA, about 20% of the paediatric population were found to have visited the ED in the past year. A recent study demonstrated that 4.5%–8% of patients account for 25% of all ED visits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of recurrent visits. Methods Design: retrospective observational study. Setting: this study examined and analysed medical record data involving three tertiary EDs. Participants: a total of 46 237 ED visits by patients 〈16 years during 1-year period. Main outcome measures: data collected included the number of recurrent ED patients, frequency of recurrent visits, age, sex, insurance status, period until recurrent visit (days), main diagnosis and ED discharge results. Results Excluding patients with multiple visits, the total number of paediatric patients who fit the study criteria was 33 765. Among these patients, 23 384 (69.2%) had no recurrent ED visits in the subsequent year after their first visit. A total of 15 849 (46.8%) patients were toddlers (between age 1 and 4 years). In the patient group without a recurrent visit, fever was the most common diagnosis. Conclusions Our study reviewed medical records to inspect the characteristics of patients who return to care. Higher recurrent visit frequency was associated with using the 119 rescue centre service, having a medical condition, with younger age and a higher rate of hospitalisation. Analysis of the factors associated with frequent ED visits will help to improve care for paediatric patients who visit the ED.
    Keywords: Open access, Emergency medicine, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 8
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  • 10
    Keywords: RISK ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ALLELES ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; IDENTIFIES 2
    Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24548884
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