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  • ASSOCIATION  (13)
  • COHORT  (7)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TRANSDUCTION ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; IMPACT ; CARCINOGENESIS ; signal transduction ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; MUTATION ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; cancer risk ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; BRCA2 ; INCREASE ; analysis ; TESTS ; USA ; BINDING DOMAIN ; CANCER-RISK ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN-CANCER ; KINASE-ANCHORING PROTEINS
    Abstract: Data from several studies have suggested that polymorphisms in A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which are key components of signal transduction, contribute to carcinogenesis. To evaluate the impact of AKAP variants on breast cancer risk, we genotyped six nonsynonymous sing le-nucleotide polymorphisms that were predicted to be deleterious and found two (M4631, 1389G〉T and N2792S, 8375A〉G) to be associated with an allele dose-dependent increase in risk of familial breast cancer in a German population. We extended the analysis of AKAP9 M4631, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with AKAP9 N2792S, to 9523 breast cancer patients and 13770 healthy control subjects from seven independent European and Australian breast cancer studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. The collaborative analysis confirmed the association of M4631 with increased breast cancer risk. Among all breast cancer patients, the combined adjusted odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer for individuals homozygous for the rare allele TT (frequency = 0.19) compared with GG homozygotes was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.08 to 1.27, P =.0003), and the OR for TT homozygotes plus GT heterozygotes compared with GG homozygotes was 1.10 (95% Cl = 1.04 to 1.17, P=.001). Among the combined subset of 2795 familial breast cancer patients, the respective ORs were 1.27 (95% Cl = 1.12 to 1.45, P =.0003) and 1.16 (95% Cl = 1.06 to 1.27, P =.001)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18334708
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; Germany ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; DELETION ; NO ; PROMOTER ; REDUCED RISK ; cancer risk ; REGION ; case-control studies ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; USA ; caspases ; PROMOTER REGION ; CANCER-RISK ; COMMON VARIANT ; breast cancer risk ; Sp1 binding site ; CASP8-652 6N del
    Abstract: A recent study on an Asian population reported a six-nucleotide insertion-deletion polymorphism (-652 6N del) in the CASP8 promoter region to be strongly associated with a decreased risk of multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer (BC). Here, we investigate the effect of this deletion in four independent large European BC case-control studies, including data from a total of 7,753 cases and 7,921 controls. The combined per allele odds ratio (OR) was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI), 95% CI = 0.93-1.02). The present result indicates that the CASP8 -652 6N del variant has no significant effect on BC risk in Europeans
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17891485
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  • 3
    Keywords: RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; telomerase ; GLIOMA ; SNPs ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; IDENTIFIES 5 ; 5P15.33
    Abstract: Genetic variation at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus at 5p15.33 is associated with susceptibility to several cancers, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We have carried out fine-mapping of this region in EOC which implicates an association with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the TERT promoter. We demonstrate that the minor alleles at rs2736109, and at an additional TERT promoter SNP, rs2736108, are associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and that the combination of both SNPs substantially reduces TERT promoter activity
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21949822
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  • 4
    Keywords: COHORT ; VARIANTS ; WOMEN ; HEIGHT ; METAANALYSIS ; bias ; ESTROGEN ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR STATUS ; INOSITOL POLYPHOSPHATES
    Abstract: A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (p(int)) 〈1.1 x 10(-3). None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women 170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women 〈160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, p(int) = 1.9 x 10(-4)). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 x 10(-4)), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, p(int) = 6.1 x 10(-4)). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 x 10(-5)), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, p(int) = 3.4 x 10(-4)). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. What's new? The recent discovery of 47 susceptibility loci associated with all or estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer provided new opportunities for genetic risk prediction but it remained unclear how exposure levels of environmental (non-genetic) risk factors influenced the risk assessment. In this gene-environment study, the international team examined interactions between the single nucleotide polymorphisms and 13 established environmental risk factors including parity, height and alcohol consumption. Notably, relative risks of breast cancer associated with the susceptibility loci were not strongly modified by environmental risk factors, a finding that, if confirmed, has important implications for the risk assessment in breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25227710
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; ASSOCIATION ; PHASE ; CYCLIN D1 EXPRESSION ; FACTOR-BINDING PROTEIN-5 ; FUNCTIONAL VARIANTS ; FOXA1
    Abstract: GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against 〉100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval = 0.84 - 0.87; P = 1.7 x 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25248036
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; primary ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; PATTERNS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; SNP ; DATABASE ; Jun ; POPULATIONS ; familial risk ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; SINGLE ; AGGREGATION ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ALLELES ; LEVEL ; familial aggregation ; single-nucleotide ; UNIT ; ENGLAND ; LOCI ; CHEK2-ASTERISK-1100DELC ; breast cancer susceptibility ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR-2
    Abstract: Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r(2) 〉 0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P 〈 10(-7)). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P 〈 0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17529967
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; PROSTATE ; COMMON ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; validation ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; STAGE ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; HEALTH ; DIFFERENCE ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; REGION ; POPULATIONS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; PREDICTORS ; LIFE-STYLE ; NESTED CASE-CONTROL ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; CARRIER ; GENOTYPE ; single-nucleotide ; USA ; NO ASSOCIATION ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; BASE-LINE CHARACTERISTICS ; nested case-control study ; case control ; case-control ; AFRICAN-AMERICAN
    Abstract: Two recent studies independently identified polymorphisms in the 8q24 region, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (rsl447295), strongly associated with prostate cancer risk. Here, we replicate the overall association in a large nested case-control study from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium using 6,637 prostate cancer cases and 7,361 matched controls. We also examine whether this polymorphism is associated with breast cancer among 2,604 Caucasian breast cancer cases and 3,118 matched controls. The rs1447295 marker was strongly associated with prostate cancer among Caucasians (P = 1.23 x 10(-13)). When we exclude the Multiethnic Cohort samples, previously reported by Freedman et al., the association remains highly significant (P = 8.64 X 10(-13)). Compared with wild-type homozygotes, carriers with one copy of the minor allele had an ORAC = 1.34 (99% confidence intervals, 1.19-1.50) and carriers with two copies of the minor allele had an ORAA = 1.86 (99% confidence intervals, 1.30-2.67). Among African Americans, the genotype association was statistically significant in men diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age (P = 0.011) and nonsignificant for those diagnosed at a later age (P = 0.924). This difference in risk by age at diagnosis was not present among Caucasians. We found no statistically significant difference in risk when tumors were classified by Gleason score, stage, or mortality. We found no association between rs1447295 and breast cancer risk (P = 0.590). Although the gene responsible has yet to be identified, the validation of this marker in this large sample of prostate cancer cases leaves little room for the possibility of a false-positive result
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17409400
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; genetics ; familial risk ; USA ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; Genetic ; 33 ; COMMON VARIANTS ; Genome-wide association studies
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, but these explain only a small fraction of the familial risk of the disease. Five of these loci were identified through a two-stage GWAS involving 390 familial cases and 364 controls in the first stage, and 3,990 cases and 3,916 controls in the second stage(1). To identify additional loci, we tested over 800 promising associations from this GWAS in a further two stages involving 37,012 cases and 40,069 controls from 33 studies in the CGEMS collaboration and Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We found strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19330027
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  • 9
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; ASSOCIATION ; VARIANTS ; breast cancer ; SELECTION ; SUBTYPES ; breast cancer risk ; CONSORTIUM ; INVESTIGATORS ; MODIFIERS ; COMMON VARIANTS ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ALLELES ; ZNF365
    Abstract: BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 x 10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 x 10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 x 10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2 x 10(-4)). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23544013
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; DNA adducts ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; AIR-POLLUTION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST-CANCER ; LESIONS ; DESIGN ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; smoking ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; OXYGEN ; DNA repair ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; reactive oxygen species ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; air pollution ; INCREASE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION ; XPD POLYMORPHISMS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; BASAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; CHROMOSOME 19Q13.2-3 ; GENE XRCC3
    Abstract: Environmental carcinogens contained in air pollution, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines or N-nitroso compounds, predominantly form DNA adducts but can also generate interstrand cross-links and reactive oxygen species. If unrepaired, such lesions increase the risk of somatic mutations and cancer. Our study investigated the relationships between 22 polymorphisms (and their haplotypes) in 16 DNA repair genes belonging to different repair pathways in 1094 controls and 567 cancer cases (bladder cancer, 131; lung cancer, 134; oral-pharyngeal cancer, 41; laryngeal cancer, 47; leukaemia, 179; death from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 84). The design was a case-control study nested within a prospective investigation. Among the many comparisons, few polymorphisms were associated with the diseases at the univariate analysis: XRCC1-399 Gln/Gln variant homozygotes [odds ratios (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16-4.17] and XRCC3-241 Met/Met homozygotes (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96) and leukaemia. The recessive model in the stepwise multivariate analysis revealed a possible protective effect of XRCC1-399Gln/Gln in lung cancer (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.05-0.98), and confirmed an opposite effect (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.02-6.02) in the leukaemia group. Our results also suggest that the XPD/ERCC1-GAT haplotype may modulate leukaemia (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.61), bladder cancer (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.06-1.79) and possibly other cancer risks. Further investigations of the combined effects of polymorphisms within these DNA repair genes, smoking and other risk factors may help to clarify the influence of genetic variation in the carcinogenic process
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16308313
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