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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 121 (1993), S. 123-127 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brine shrimp text ; Mucorales ; Plant assays ; Toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The toxigenicity of representatives of 15 species of Mucorales (Absidia glauca, Actinomucor elegans, Cunninghamella elegans, Helicostylum piriforme, Mortierella isabellina, Mortierella (Mucor) rammaniana, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor mucedo, Mucor spinosus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Rhizopus oligosporus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Thamnidium elegans, Zygorhynchus moelleri) towards the larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and the growth of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum) and tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) was evaluated. The fungi were cultivated on malt extract agar and aqueous solutions of the cultures were tested.Thamnidium elegans showed a marked toxic action towards brine shrimp (mortality: 74.1%) andPhycomyces, Actinomucor andSyncephalastrum were only weakly toxic. Length and weight of stems of pea seedlings were moderately reduced by extracts ofAbsidia, Cunninghamella, Zygorhynchus andThamnidium and to a lesser degree byMucor spinosus. Cunninghamella andMucor spinosus also inhibited the development of pea hypocotyls. The length of tobacco stems was reduced byMortierella ramanniana, Rhizopus stolonifer andCunninghamella elegans. Wilting or other toxic phenomena were never observed with both test plants. Considering the present results and data from literature it is suggested that species of Mucorales have only a weak toxigenicity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Fermented foodstuffs ; miso ; koji ; peas(Pisum sativum) ; beans(Phaseolus vulgaris) ; Fermentierte Lebensmittel ; Miso ; Koji ; Erbsen(Pisum sativum) ; Bohnen(Phaseolus vulgaris)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Miso ist eine fermentierte Sojabohnenpaste, die in Japan weite Verwendung als Suppeneinlage und Würzmittel findet. Bei der Herstellung wird Koji (mit dem SchimmelpilzAspergillus oryzae durchwachsenes Getreide) als Enzymquelle eingesetzt. Erbsen(Pisum sativum) und Bohnen(Phaseolus vulgaris) heimischer Herkunft können die Sojabohnen als Substrat ersetzen. Dabei werden die Körner (Erbsen, Bohnen und Sojabohnen zum Vergleich) gewaschen, eingeweicht, geschält und 35 Minuten lang bei vermindertem Druck gekocht. Anschließend werden die Körner zermahlen und mit Salz, Koji und Mugi-Miso als Starter vermischt und 14 Tage lang bei 45°C inkubiert. Während der Fermentation steigt der Glukosegehalt bis zu einem Maximalwert nach 8–10 Tagen an und fällt dann ab. Der Rohproteingehalt fällt während der Inkubation, während die Trockenmasse ansteigt. Bei allen drei Miso-Arten sinkt der pH-Wert während der Fermentation ab. Geruch und Geschmack der Endprodukte werden von den meisten der 40 Testpersonen als aromatisch-säuerlich bezeichnet; Erbsen-Miso riecht und schmeckt für viele Personen auch etwas süßlich. Der typische Leguminosengeschmack fehlt immer.
    Notes: Summary Miso is a fermented soybean paste widely used in Japan as a soup base or as a seasoning agent. Koji (cereal grains with the moldAspergillus oryzae) serves as enzyme source. Peas(Pisum sativum) and beans(Phaseolus vulgaris) of German origin can be used as substitutes for soybeans in the preparation of miso-like products. The legumes (peas, beans and soybeans for comparison) are washed, soaked in boiled water, dehulled and cooked for 35 min at reduced pressure. After grounding the seeds are mixed with salt, koji and mugi miso as starter and incubated at 45°C for 14 days. During fermentation the glucose content increases up to 8–10 days and subsequently drops down. Crude protein decreases during incubation while dry matter increases. The pH value of all three miso types decreases during the fermentation period. Most of the 40 test persons characterize odor and flavor of the three misos as aromatic or sour; pea miso is often recorded to have a sweet-like odor and flavor. A legume-like taste of the final products has not been recorded.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two adult sisters affected by cystic fibrosis were both shown to carry two different alterations within exon 11 of the CFTR gene, the nonsense mutation G542X and the missense mutation G551D. Both patients exhibit a relatively benign clinical course. In the described patients, G542X functions as a “mild” allele and is, in this respect, dominant to the “severe” G551D.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we have screened the DNA of 42 patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy for deletions within the DMD gene. Two regions within putative deletion “hot spots” of this gene were tested, and deletions were found in 16.6% of patients. The oligonucleotide primers employed in this study initiate the amplification of exon sequences and were used to test the suitability and reliability of PCR in deletion screening and prenatal diagnosis using various numbers of cycles and artificial contamination ratios. We compared our approach with both “multiplex DNA amplification” and Southern blot analysis. A comparative evaluation of currently available techniques is presented.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The N1303K mutation was identified in the second nucleotide binding fold of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene last year. We have gathered data from laboratories throughout Europe and the United States of America in order to estimate its frequency and to attempt to characterise the clinical manifestations of this mutation. N1303K, identified on 216 of nearly 15000 CF chromosomes tested, accounts for 1.5% of all CF chromosomes. The frequency of the N1303K allele varies significantly between countries and ethnic groups, being more common in Southern than in Northern Europe. This variation is independent of the AF508 allele. It was not found on UK Asian, American Black or Australian chromosomes. N1303K is associated with four different linked marker haplotypes for the polymorphic markers XV-2c, KM.19 and pMP6d-9. Ten patients are homozygous for this mutation, whereas 106 of the remainder carry one of 12 known CF mutations in the other CF allele. We classify N1303K as a “severe” mutation with respect to the pancreas, but can find no correlation between this mutation, in either the homozygous or heterozygous state, and the severity of lung disease.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Haemophilia B ; Diagnosis ; RFLPs ; PCR ; DNA Amplification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify specific DNA sequences within the factor IX gene of haemophilia B patients and their relatives. Three of the amplified fragments contain polymorphic sites, which can be used as markers in segregation analyses. These restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were until recently detected by Southern blotting after digestion with the restriction enzymesTaq I,Dde I andXmn I. All three RFLP's are located in introns of the factor IX gene and together are informative in approximately 70% of all cases. Each of the polymorphisms was successfully used in carrier detection studies after amplification of the relevant fragments. This method is also suitable for rapid antenatal diagnosis. Additionally we were able to amplify all eight exons of the factor IX gene including the splice junctions and a part of the 5′-region. Large deletions or insertions can be detected without further analysis. Several possibilities for the rapid detection of point mutations after DNA amplification have been described recently. The complete amplification of all functional parts of the Factor IX gene in combination with these new techniques should enable us to detect the majority of mutations leading to haemophilia B.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy ; Deletion screening ; Prenatal diagnosis ; Polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We describe the application of deletion screening by amplification of deletion-prone exons via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a family with a sporadic case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). No DNA was available from the affected patient who died 12 years beforehand at the age of 18 years. Material obtained prenatally from two male fetuses exhibited an identical deletion. These findings effectivly transformed a sporadic case into a familial case and a numerical carrier risk was substituted by obligate carrier status. Additionally an indirect genotype analysis was replaced by the possibility of direct DNA analysis. Genetic counselling, formerly based upon incomplete data, can now be aided by precise risk assessment.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied microbiology and biotechnology 37 (1992), S. 830-832 
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from Germany was tested in surface cultures. The intensity of bioliquefaction was determined by estimating the rate of droplet formation and by measuring the loss of weight of the coal granules gravimetrically. The bituminous coals with a relative high degree of coalification were only moderately converted by Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju. The three species of Pleurotus caused the greatest rate of biosolubilization of lignite, yielding a loss of weight of the coal granules of more than 5.8% with a maximum of 7.6% with P. florida. The non-basidiomycetes proved to be less active with a liquefaction rate of up to 3.5% with Trichoderma viride. In general, the geologically younger lignite coals were more effectively solubilized than the older hard coals. The volatile matter and the oxygen content proved to be the principal factors influencing the intensity of bioconversion.
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