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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-02
    Description: The circadian clock in mammals is driven by an autoregulatory transcriptional feedback mechanism that takes approximately 24 hours to complete. A key component of this mechanism is a heterodimeric transcriptional activator consisting of two basic helix-loop-helix PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) domain protein subunits, CLOCK and BMAL1. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex containing the mouse CLOCK:BMAL1 bHLH-PAS domains at 2.3 A resolution. The structure reveals an unusual asymmetric heterodimer with the three domains in each of the two subunits--bHLH, PAS-A, and PAS-B--tightly intertwined and involved in dimerization interactions, resulting in three distinct protein interfaces. Mutations that perturb the observed heterodimer interfaces affect the stability and activity of the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex as well as the periodicity of the circadian oscillator. The structure of the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex is a starting point for understanding at an atomic level the mechanism driving the mammalian circadian clock.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Nian -- Chelliah, Yogarany -- Shan, Yongli -- Taylor, Clinton A -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Partch, Carrie -- Green, Carla B -- Zhang, Hong -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- R01 GM081875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090247/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 13;337(6091):189-94. doi: 10.1126/science.1222804. Epub 2012 May 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653727" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; *Circadian Rhythm ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs ; Humans ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Static Electricity ; *Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koike, Nobuya -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung-Chung -- Kumar, Vivek -- Lee, Choogon -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053616/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):349-54. doi: 10.1126/science.1226339. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Circadian Clocks/*genetics ; Cryptochromes/*genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Period Circadian Proteins/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; *Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-22
    Description: Tissue wounding induces the rapid recruitment of leukocytes. Wounds and tumours--a type of 'unhealed wound'--generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) through an NADPH oxidase (NOX). This extracellular H(2)O(2) mediates recruitment of leukocytes, particularly the first responders of innate immunity, neutrophils, to injured tissue. However, the sensor that neutrophils use to detect the redox state at wounds is unknown. Here we identify the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn as a redox sensor that mediates initial neutrophil recruitment to wounds in zebrafish larvae. Lyn activation in neutrophils is dependent on wound-derived H(2)O(2) after tissue injury, and inhibition of Lyn attenuates neutrophil wound recruitment. Inhibition of SFKs also disrupted H(2)O(2)-mediated chemotaxis of primary human neutrophils. In vitro analysis identified a single cysteine residue, C466, as being responsible for direct oxidation-mediated activation of Lyn. Furthermore, transgenic-tissue-specific reconstitution with wild-type Lyn and a cysteine mutant revealed that Lyn C466 is important for the neutrophil wound response and downstream signalling in vivo. This is the first identification, to our knowledge, of a physiological redox sensor that mediates leukocyte wound attraction in multicellular organisms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228893/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228893/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoo, Sa Kan -- Starnes, Taylor W -- Deng, Qing -- Huttenlocher, Anna -- 5T32 HL07899/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F30 HL114143/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- GM074827/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074827/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074827-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 20;480(7375):109-12. doi: 10.1038/nature10632.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101434" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism ; Larva ; Neutrophils/*enzymology ; *Oxidation-Reduction ; Wounds and Injuries/*enzymology ; Zebrafish/metabolism/*physiology ; Zebrafish Proteins/*metabolism ; src-Family Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-02-08
    Description: Geographic atrophy (GA), an untreatable advanced form of age-related macular degeneration, results from retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell degeneration. Here we show that the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 is reduced in the RPE of humans with GA, and that conditional ablation of Dicer1, but not seven other miRNA-processing enzymes, induces RPE degeneration in mice. DICER1 knockdown induces accumulation of Alu RNA in human RPE cells and Alu-like B1 and B2 RNAs in mouse RPE. Alu RNA is increased in the RPE of humans with GA, and this pathogenic RNA induces human RPE cytotoxicity and RPE degeneration in mice. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting Alu/B1/B2 RNAs prevent DICER1 depletion-induced RPE degeneration despite global miRNA downregulation. DICER1 degrades Alu RNA, and this digested Alu RNA cannot induce RPE degeneration in mice. These findings reveal a miRNA-independent cell survival function for DICER1 involving retrotransposon transcript degradation, show that Alu RNA can directly cause human pathology, and identify new targets for a major cause of blindness.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077055/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077055/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaneko, Hiroki -- Dridi, Sami -- Tarallo, Valeria -- Gelfand, Bradley D -- Fowler, Benjamin J -- Cho, Won Gil -- Kleinman, Mark E -- Ponicsan, Steven L -- Hauswirth, William W -- Chiodo, Vince A -- Kariko, Katalin -- Yoo, Jae Wook -- Lee, Dong-ki -- Hadziahmetovic, Majda -- Song, Ying -- Misra, Smita -- Chaudhuri, Gautam -- Buaas, Frank W -- Braun, Robert E -- Hinton, David R -- Zhang, Qing -- Grossniklaus, Hans E -- Provis, Jan M -- Madigan, Michele C -- Milam, Ann H -- Justice, Nikki L -- Albuquerque, Romulo J C -- Blandford, Alexander D -- Bogdanovich, Sasha -- Hirano, Yoshio -- Witta, Jassir -- Fuchs, Elaine -- Littman, Dan R -- Ambati, Balamurali K -- Rudin, Charles M -- Chong, Mark M W -- Provost, Patrick -- Kugel, Jennifer F -- Goodrich, James A -- Dunaief, Joshua L -- Baffi, Judit Z -- Ambati, Jayakrishna -- NIHU10EY013729/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY006360/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY014800/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY014800-07/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY021721/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30EY003040/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30EY008571/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30EY06360/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018350/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018350-05/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018836/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018836-04/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY020672/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY020672-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068414/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01EY001545/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY011123/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY015240/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY015422/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY017182/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY017950/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY018350/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY018836/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01EY020672/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM068414/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HD027215/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R21 EY019778/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R21 EY019778-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R21AI076757/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21EY019778/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 EY020442/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 EY020442-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- RC1EY020442/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL091812/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):325-30. doi: 10.1038/nature09830. Epub 2011 Feb 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21297615" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alu Elements/*genetics ; Animals ; Cell Death ; Cell Survival ; Cells, Cultured ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/*deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Macular Degeneration/*genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oligonucleotides, Antisense ; Phenotype ; RNA/*genetics/*metabolism ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/enzymology/metabolism/pathology ; Ribonuclease III/*deficiency/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-03-31
    Description: Synchronizing rhythms of behaviour and metabolic processes is important for cardiovascular health and preventing metabolic diseases. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-alpha and REV-ERB-beta have an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Here we describe the identification of potent synthetic REV-ERB agonists with in vivo activity. Administration of synthetic REV-ERB ligands alters circadian behaviour and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian pattern of expression of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was also altered, resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with a REV-ERB agonist decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improving dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These results indicate that synthetic REV-ERB ligands that pharmacologically target the circadian rhythm may be beneficial in the treatment of sleep disorders as well as metabolic diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3343186/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3343186/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Solt, Laura A -- Wang, Yongjun -- Banerjee, Subhashis -- Hughes, Travis -- Kojetin, Douglas J -- Lundasen, Thomas -- Shin, Youseung -- Liu, Jin -- Cameron, Michael D -- Noel, Romain -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- Butler, Andrew A -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Burris, Thomas P -- DK080201/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK088499/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK089984/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MH092769/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK073189/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK080201/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK080201-05/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH092769/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH092769-02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH093429/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH093429-01A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 29;485(7396):62-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11030.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22460951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Biological Clocks/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Circadian Rhythm/*drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Energy Metabolism/*drug effects ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hypothalamus/drug effects/metabolism ; Liver/drug effects/metabolism ; Metabolome/drug effects ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects/metabolism ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/metabolism ; Obesity/chemically induced/drug therapy/metabolism ; Pyrrolidines/*pharmacology ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Thiophenes/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-02-24
    Description: Among the key properties that distinguish adult mammalian stem cells from their more differentiated progeny is the ability of stem cells to remain in a quiescent state for prolonged periods of time. However, the molecular pathways for the maintenance of stem-cell quiescence remain elusive. Here we use adult mouse muscle stem cells (satellite cells) as a model system and show that the microRNA (miRNA) pathway is essential for the maintenance of the quiescent state. Satellite cells that lack a functional miRNA pathway spontaneously exit quiescence and enter the cell cycle. We identified quiescence-specific miRNAs in the satellite-cell lineage by microarray analysis. Among these, miRNA-489 (miR-489) is highly expressed in quiescent satellite cells and is quickly downregulated during satellite-cell activation. Further analysis revealed that miR-489 functions as a regulator of satellite-cell quiescence, as it post-transcriptionally suppresses the oncogene Dek, the protein product of which localizes to the more differentiated daughter cell during asymmetric division of satellite cells and promotes the transient proliferative expansion of myogenic progenitors. Our results provide evidence of the miRNA pathway in general, and of a specific miRNA, miR-489, in actively maintaining the quiescent state of an adult stem-cell population.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292200/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292200/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cheung, Tom H -- Quach, Navaline L -- Charville, Gregory W -- Liu, Ling -- Park, Lidia -- Edalati, Abdolhossein -- Yoo, Bryan -- Hoang, Phuong -- Rando, Thomas A -- DP1 OD000392/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-05/OD/NIH HHS/ -- F30 AG035521/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG036695-01A1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG023806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG023806-05/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056849/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056849-03/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR062185/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR062185-01/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AG23806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG023806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 23;482(7386):524-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10834.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22358842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Cycle/drug effects/*genetics ; Cell Differentiation/drug effects ; Cell Lineage/drug effects ; Cell Survival/drug effects/genetics ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; MicroRNAs/*genetics ; Myoblasts/*cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Oncogene Proteins/genetics ; Ribonuclease III/genetics/metabolism ; Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Tamoxifen/pharmacology ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the beta2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 A. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum beta2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this beta2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a chemically tractable target that could be exploited by next-generation anti-malarial agents.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755332/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755332/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Hao -- O'Donoghue, Anthony J -- van der Linden, Wouter A -- Xie, Stanley C -- Yoo, Euna -- Foe, Ian T -- Tilley, Leann -- Craik, Charles S -- da Fonseca, Paula C A -- Bogyo, Matthew -- MC-UP-1201/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AI078947/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI105106/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI078947/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01EB05011/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):233-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16936.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Victoria, Australia. ; MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antimalarials/adverse effects/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity ; Artemisinins/pharmacology ; Catalytic Domain ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; *Drug Design ; Drug Resistance ; Drug Synergism ; Enzyme Activation ; Female ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Models, Molecular ; Plasmodium/*drug effects/*enzymology/growth & development ; Plasmodium chabaudi/drug effects/enzymology/physiology ; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects/enzymology/growth & development ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Proteasome Inhibitors/adverse effects/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity ; Protein Subunits/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Species Specificity ; Substrate Specificity/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has a lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a nonsynonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2, and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine-response phenotypes. We propose that CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to use mouse substrains to identify previously unknown genes and alleles regulating behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kumar, Vivek -- Kim, Kyungin -- Joseph, Chryshanthi -- Kourrich, Said -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung Chung -- Vitaterna, Martha H -- de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel -- Churchill, Gary -- Bonci, Antonello -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH61915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1508-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1245503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage ; Cocaine/*administration & dosage ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/*genetics/*psychology ; *Drug-Seeking Behavior ; Methamphetamine/administration & dosage ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Phenylalanine/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Psychomotor Performance/drug effects ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Serine/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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