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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Milk composition ; Lactation ; Calcium ; Bats ; Phyllostomatidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth rates of mammalian young are closely linked to the ability of the mother to provide nutrients; thus, milk composition and yield provide a direct measure of maternal investment during lactation in many mammals. We studied changes in milk composition and output throughout lactation in a free-ranging population of the omnivorous bat, Phyllostomus hastatus. Fat and dry matter of milk increased from 9 to 21% and from 21 to 35% of wet mass, respectively, throughout lactation. Energy increased from 6 to 9 kJ · g−1 wet mass, primarily due to the increase in fat concentration. Total sugar levels decreased slightly but non-significantly. Mean sugar level was 4.0% of wet mass. Protein concentration increased from 6 to 11% of wet mass at peak lactation and then decreased as pups approached weaning age. Total milk energy output until pups began to forage was 3609 kJ. Milk levels of Mg, Fe, Ca, K, and Na averaged 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.23 ± 0.2, 8.75 ± 4.17, 5.42 ± 2.11, and 9.87 ± 4.3 mg · g−1 dry matter, respectively. Of the minerals studied, calcium appears to be most limiting in this species. The high degree of variability in foraging time, milk composition and milk yield between individuals at the same stage of lactation could potentially yield high variance in reproductive success among females of this polygynous species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Chiroptera ; Muscle development ; Ontogeny of flight ; Postnatal growth ; Muscle histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight ability, muscle morphology, and histochemistry were investigated in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The pectoralis major, acromiodeltoideus, and quadriceps femoris muscles were examined using stains for myofibrillar ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPDH) enzyme reactions. Bats first exhibited spontaneous, drop-evoked flapping behavior at 10 days, short horizontal flight at 17 days, and sustained flight at 24 days of age. Wing loading decreased and aspect ratio increased during postnatal development, each reaching adult range before the onset of sustained flight. Histochemically, fibers from the three muscles were undifferentiated at birth and had lower oxidative and glycolytic capacities compared to other age groups. Cross-sectional areas of fibers from the pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus muscles increased significantly at an age when dropevoked flapping behavior was first observed, suggesting that the neuromuscular mechanism controlling flapping did not develop until this time. Throughout the postnatal growth period, pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area increased significantly. By day 17 the pectoralis muscle had become differentiated in glycolytic capacity, as indicated by the mosaic staining pattern for α-GPDH. By contrast, the quadriceps fibers were relatively large at birth and slowly increased in size during the postnatal period. Fiber differentiation was evident at the time young bats began to fly, as indicated by a mosaic pattern of staining for myosin ATPase. These results indicate that flight muscles (pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus) are less well developed at birth and undergo rapid development just before the onset of flight. By contrast the quadriceps femoris muscle, which is required for postural control, is more developed at birth than the flight muscles and grows more slowly during subsequent development.
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