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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Summary This paper looks at the problems of science and technology education in Mexico, and proposes ways in which the quality of education at every level can be improved. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach, and from that approach to science education, the development of environmental education.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A prospective study was performed to assess the value of differential quantitative blood cultures in the diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis when this condition is suspected on clinical grounds and to establish a reliable discriminative value for application without removal of the inserted catheter. A total of 107 central venous catheters from 64 patients were used for the study. Blood was obtained simultaneously through the suspected infected device and from a peripheral venipuncture. The catheter was removed and its tip cultured semiquantitatively. Catheter-related sepsis occurred in 17 patients. Using as cut-off value a colony count fourfold higher in blood drawn through the catheter than in simultaneously drawn peripheral blood, a sensitivity of 94 %, specificity of 100 % and positive predictive value of 100 % were obtained. A single bacterial count 〉 100 cfu/ml in the quantitative culture of the catheter blood specimen in the presence of a positive qualitative peripheral blood culture of the same organism was also highly suggestive of catheter-related sepsis. Differential quantitative blood culture is a reliable method for the diagnosis of catheter-associated sepsis without catheter removal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Key words:Aetiology – Diagnosis – Giant cell arteritis – Ischaemia – Temporal arteritis – Vasculitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Giant cell arteritis most often affects the superficial temporal artery. Arterial territories such as the facial, carotid, myometrial and upper and lower limb arteries may be affected. In this paper we describe the case of a 52-year-old patient with upper and lower limb ischaemia who presented with grade III ischaemia in the left lower limb. Giant cell arteritis was diagnosed as responsible for the symptoms. After treatment with corticoids, an angiographic improvement was evidence after 2-year period. The low number of reported cases, the diverse symptoms and varied course make diagnosis of GCA difficult. Therefore, GCA must be taken into consideration in the ischaemia of inferior and superior limbs whether isolated or simultaneous.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0743
    Keywords: computed tomography ; venous DSA ; coronary bypass grafts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Venous digital subtraction angiography (vDSA) and computed tomography (CT) are two non-invasive techniques that allow direct imaging of coronary grafts. Neither of them is 100% accurate when compared to selective angiography. We studied 52 patients with 107 coronary grafts (101 saphenous and 6 mammary artery grafts) by CT and vDSA. Fifty patients had control selective angiography and 2 had control digital arterial aortography. CT correctly diagnosed 88 of the 95 patent grafts and 8 out of the 12 occluded grafts (in 1 patient 3 patent grafts could not be well analyzed owing to artifacts from pacemaker wires). vDSA correctly identified 93 patent grafts and the 12 occluded grafts, allowing the correct diagnosis of the 11 non/or misdiagnosed CT grafts. CT allowed the correct identification of ihe 2 misdiagnosed vDSA grafts. These results show that when there was agreement between CT and vDSA there were no diagnostic errors and that the combination of these two non-invasive techniques may avoid selective angiography for studying coronary bypass graft patency.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Capacitation ; Triple stain technique ; Lectin ; Oocyte ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Ejaculated spermatozoa from four different boars were used to evaluate the acrosome reaction during in vitro fertilization with homologous ovulated oocytes. The acrosome reaction was assessed according to a peroxidase-labeling peanut agglutinin method and a triple-stain technique. An increase in the proportion of living sperm with reacted acrosomes was observed after preincubation and 2 hr of coincubation (P 〈 0.05). The percentage of true acrosome-reacted sperm remained reasonably constant throughout coincubation. In vitro penetration rates of oocytes varied among boars, but no relationship was found between fertilization rates of oocytes and maximum percentages of acrosome reacted living sperm. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Diet ; Physical exercise ; Plasma lipid concentrations ; Anxiety
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study evaluates the influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations — total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the TC:HDL-C ratio, in a homogeneous (age, sex and anxiety levels) group of young pilots divided into the following groups: A. uncontrolled diet and exercise programme; B. controlled diet and uncontrolled exercise programme; C. controlled diet and exercise programme (n=90). The dietary intake was a typical Mediterranean diet, which was supervised by the Flight Surgeon. The exercise was based on a physical training programme for pilots, directed by the Physical Training Officer. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test was performed to evaluate the anxiety levels. This test was supervised by a psychologist. The results showed a marked difference in all the lipid parameters studied between groups with an ad libitum diet versus groups with a controlled diet, this difference being demonstrated by TC and TG concentrations lower in the group with a controlled diet, than in the group with an ad libitum diet. A difference in HDL-C concentrations and TC :HDL-C ratio was found between groups with regular physical training (high HDL-C concentration and low TC:HDL-C ratio) versus groups with unlimited exercise (low HDL-C concentrations and high TC: HDL-C ratio). No differences in the state and trait of anxiety were found among any of the groups. Nevertheless, all the pilots showed a considerable increase in their anxiety state over their own anxiety trait.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Muscle growth ; Hypertrophy ; Hyperplasia ; Histochemistry ; Fish ; Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fibre-type differentiation of the lateral musculature has been studied in Sparus aurata (L.) and Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) during larval development. Histochemical and ultrastructural techniques show two presumptive muscle layers and two germinative zones of presumptive myoblasts. At hatching, myotomal muscle consists of a monolayer of thin undifferentiated cells near the skin (first germinative zone) overlying another mono-layer of small diameter fibres extending hypaxially and epaxially away from the transverse septum. Below this, there is a much thicker, deep layer of fibres, generally large in diameter and polygonal in shape. The presumptive myoblasts are located between these two layers of fibres in the second germinative zone. Initially, the superficial and deep muscle fibres show high and low myosin ATPase activity, respectively. Both layers grow by generating new fibres from the two mentioned germinative zones. At the end of larval life, the superficial layer changes its histochemical profile from high to low myosin ATPase activity and, at the same time, intermediate or pink muscle fibres can be observed by oxidative activity (the NADH-TR reaction). Morphometric analysis shows a significant increase in mean fibre diameter during successive ages, as shown by the Student's t-test (hypertrophic growth). Skewness and kurtosis values of fibre diameters point to the generation of a new fibre population from the germinative zones (hyperplastic growth).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Ultrastructure ; Muscle growth ; Hypertrophy ; Hyperplasia ; Histochemistry ; Fish ; Sparus aurata ; Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Fibre-type differentiation of the lateral musculature has been studied in Sparus aurata (L.) and Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) during larval development. Histochemical and ultrastructural techniques show two presumptive muscle layers and two germinative zones of presumptive myoblasts. At hatching, myotomal muscle consists of a monolayer of thin undifferentiated cells near the skin (first germinative zone) overlying another monolayer of small diameter fibres extending hypaxially and epaxially away from the transverse septum. Below this, there is a much thicker, deep layer of fibres, generally large in diameter and polygonal in shape. The presumptive myoblasts are located between these two layers of fibres in the second germinative zone. Initially, the superficial and deep muscle fibres show high and low myosin ATPase activity, respectively. Both layers grow by generating new fibres from the two mentioned germinative zones. At the end of larval life, the superficial layer changes its histochemical profile from high to low myosin ATPase activity and, at the same time, intermediate or pink muscle fibres can be observed by oxidative activity (the NADH-TR reaction). Morphometric analysis shows a significant increase in mean fibre diameter during successive ages, as shown by the Student’s t-test (hypertrophic growth). Skewness and kurtosis values of fibre diameters point to the generation of a new fibre population from the germinative zones (hyperplastic growth).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Dog ; Muscle ; Development ; Fibre ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study the differentiation of postnatal muscle fibres in dog semitendinosus muscle has been characterized. Several histochemical techniques for myosin ATPase and metabolic activity were used in animals aged between 1 day and 2 months. The results show that at birth there are two types of fibre, whose ATPase activity gradually changes during postnatal development, so that several types of fibre can be identified after 2 months. These finally become the four types of the adult: I, IIA, IIDog, IIC. The main conclusions of the study are that the use of mATPase techniques is appropriate for showing the differentiation between muscle fibres, even at early stages of postnatal development, and that the origin of the four different fibres of the adult can be traced back to early postnatal stages.
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