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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Optical and quantum electronics 7 (1975), S. 443-446 
    ISSN: 1572-817X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Acrylic resin is presented as a well suited material for waveguides. The losses due to scattering and absorption in the film are less than 0.13 dB cm−1. The mode-structure has been investigated as a function of the angle of incidence and the film thickness, both by experiment and numerical calculation. It is demonstrated that acrylic resin is an appropriate material for forming integrated optical components for beam refraction, reflection and splitting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Arabinogalactan-proteins ; Somatic embryogenesis ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Embryogenic units of friable maize callus are formed as globular or oblong packets of tightly associated meristematic cells. These units are surrounded by conspicuous cell walls visible in light microscopy after staining with basic fuchsin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that embryogenic cells are rich in endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes and small protein bodies, and that the outermost layer of their cell walls is composed of fibrillar material. Electron microscopy has also shown that this material covers the surface of embryogenic cells as a distinct layer which we denote as extracellular matrix surface network (ECMSN). Employing histochemical staining with β-glucosyl Yariv phenylglycoside, we localized arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) to the outer cell walls of embryogenic units including ECMSN. The most prominent staining was found in cell-cell junction domains. Large non-embryogenic callus cells were not stained with this AGP-specific dye. Immunofluorescence and silver-enhanced immunogold labelling using monoclonal antibody JIM4 has shown that the ECMSN of embryogenic cells is equipped with JIM4 epitope, while non-embryogenic callus cells are devoid of this epitope. We propose that some specific AGPs of the ECMSN might be relevant for cell-cell adhesion and recognition of embryogenic cells during early embryogenic stages, and that the JIM4 antibody can serve as an early marker of embryogenic competence in maize callus culture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Amyloplasts ; Enzyme conversion ; Phosphorylose (starch) ; Senescence ; Solanum ; Starch phosphorylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Phosphorylase was purified from young and senescent potato tubers. Antibodies raised against the enzyme from young tubers crossreacted with phosphorylase from old tissue, although the latter exhibited different physico-chemical properties. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it migrated with higher mobility, its subunit molecular weight was determined in the range of 40,000 in contrast to 100,000 of the phosphorylase in young tubers. The enzyme of senescent tubers displayed an isoelectric point of 5.4 different from the one of young tubers with 5.0, and the diffusion coefficients of the two enzymes varied. The appearance of the phosphorylase form typical for senescent tissue is connected with changes in the intracellular localization as revealed by immunofluorescence. Before massive starch accumulation is initiated, non-vacuolated subepidermal cells contain antigenically active material in their cytoplasm. During starch accumulation in fully differentiated storage parenchyma, only amyloplasts fluoresce, indicating the presence of adsorbed phosphorylase protein. Cytoplasmic phosphorylase can be detected in the continuance of senescence and, finally, after 16 months of tuber storage, the particle-bound enzyme had mostly disappeared. Simultaneously, we observed membrane destruction and decomposition on the ultrastructural level. The phosphorylase from senescent potatoes is a converted molecule and seems to be formed by proteolytic cleavage. The location of phosphorylase in the amyloplasts during starch synthesis indicates that it also plays a role in starch synthesis and not only in its degradation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Filipin ; Lepidium ; Plasma membrane ; Root (membranes) ; Tonoplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Membranes from roots of Lepidium sativum L. were investigated in situ and after fractionation by applying morphological and biochemical methods. After freeze-fracture combined with filipin labelling the tonoplast and the plasma membrane could be easily characterized by the frequency of intramembranous particles and the arrangement of filipin-induced lesions. On tonoplast vesicles, the filipin-induced lesions were arranged in clusters of different size whereas they were evenly distributed on plasma membrane vesicles. Enrichment of tonoplast and plasma membrane in different fractions was documented by filipin labelling, phosphotungstic acid staining and by the profiles of marker enzyme activities and ATP-dependent H+-transport. Additionally, the presence of rightside-out and inside-out vesicles of both tonoplast and plasma membrane could be demonstrated. It was found that filipin labelling used in combination with freeze-fracturing is suitable for quantitative determinations of the percentages of tonoplast and plasma membrane in membrane fractions, which have been found to be more than 40% for the tonoplast and about 40% for plasma membrane in the respective enriched fractions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chara ; Graviperception ; Lepidium ; Microfilament ; Microgravity ; Statolith (reduced gravitational field)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract During five rocket flights (TEXUS 18, 19, 21, 23 and 25), experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of statoliths in rhizoids of the green alga Chara globularia Thuill. and in statocytes of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) roots, when the gravitational field changed to approx. 10−4 · g (i.e. microgravity) during the parabolic flight (lasting for 301–390 s) of the rockets. The position of statoliths was only slightly influenced by the conditions during launch, e.g. vibration, acceleration and rotation of the rocket. Within approx. 6 min of microgravity conditions the shape of the statolith complex in the rhizoids changed from a transversely oriented lens into a longitudinally oriented spindle. The center of the statolith complex moved approx. 14 μm and 3.6 μm in rhizoids and root statocytes, respectively, in the opposite direction to the originally acting gravity vector. The kinetics of statolith displacement in rhizoids demonstrate that the velocity was nearly constant under microgravity whereas it decreased remarkably after inversion of rhizoids on Earth. It can be concluded that on Earth the position of statoliths in both rhizoids and root statocytes depends on the balance of two forces, i.e. the gravitational force and the counteracting force mediated by microfilaments.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Lepidium ; Membrane protein ; Monoclonal antibody TOP 71 ; Plasma membrane ; Tonoplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Highly purified tonoplast and plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from roots of Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) were used as a starting material for generating a monoclonal antibody against plant tonoplast. Tonoplast vesicles were isolated by discontinuous-sucrose-gradient centrifugation followed by free-flow electrophoresis. The deglycosylated tonoplast fraction was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by immunization of Balb/c-mice and by fusion of their β-lymphocytes with the mouse cell line X 63 Ag 8.653. Using plasma membrane purified by two-phase partitioning and freeflow electrophoresis to define the negative signal in screening, and purified tonoplast to define the positive signal in screening, a monoclonal antibody (TOP 71) was obtained which recognized a tonoplast protein of 71 kDa by immunoblotting in cress-root membrane fractions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, affinoblotting and binding to concanavalin A showed that the TOP 71-antigen was a glycosylated protein and had an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5. The TOP 71-antigen was found in the different tissues of organs of several higher plants (Glycine max L., Curcurbita pepo L., Zea mays L.) where it did not cross-react with the purified plasma-membrane fractions of these plants. Additionally, TOP 71 recognized its antigen in microsomal fractions of two lower plants (Chara globularis Thuili., Matteucia struthiopteris Tod.).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Thin-layer chromatography ; Circular mode ; Partially alkylated reversed-phases plates ; Water concentration in mobile phase of great influence ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 79 (1992), S. 68-74 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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