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  • Hydrobia  (1)
  • Key words CADASIL  (1)
  • 1995-1999  (2)
  • 1950-1954
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Corophium ; Hydrobia ; intertidal mud flats ; microphallid trematodes ; phenology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phenology of microphallid trematodes within their intermediate hostpopulations has been studied on an intertidal mud flat. The parasites usethe mud snail Hydrobia ulvae and the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutatoras first and secondary intermediate host, respectively. Migratory shorebirdsact as final hosts. Our results show a general trend of decline in thedensity of infected intermediate hosts during both spring and autumn, whichcould mainly be ascribed to shorebird predation. During summer the densityof both infected snails and infected amphipods increased considerably, witha culmination in June within the snail population (1000 infectedm-2 and in August within the amphipod population (40 000infected m-2. This time lag in parasite occurrence could berelated to (1) the development time of larval trematodes within the snails,(2) higher ambient temperatures in late summer increasing parasitetransmission between snails and amphipods during this period, and (3) ageneral increase in the Corophium population during late summer. Fromsamples collected between 1990 and 1995 it is shown that microphallidtrematodes occasionally may give rise to mass mortality in the amphipodpopulation. The prerequisites for such an event are a high parasiteprevalence within the first intermediate host population and unusually highambient temperatures, facilitating parasite transmission to the secondaryintermediate host, C. volutator.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words CADASIL ; Electron microscopy ; Granular osmiophilic material ; αB crystallin ; Heat ; shock proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a non-arterio-atherosclerotic, non-amyloidotic arteriopathy affecting preferentially the small arteries and arterioles of the brain. The morphologic hallmark is the presence of a characteristic granular alteration of the arterial media that ultrastructurally corresponds to the accumulation of electron-dense material surrounding the smooth muscle cells. Although the presence of this granular osmiophilic material (GOM) was originally described as limited to brain vessels, identical electron microscopic findings have been demonstrated in the media of peripheral tissue arteries, allowing for a pathologic diagnosis of the disease by a simple skin, muscle or nerve biopsy. We report some atypical features identified in our CADASIL patients that broaden the phenotypic expression of this disease. Firstly, we identified a cortical infarct in an otherwise typical CADASIL patient. Secondly, we observed GOM in skin arteries of a 30-year-old man with hemiplegic migraine, the son of a woman who had died with CADASIL. This confirms that it may be possible to diagnose the disease at a preclinical stage by the ultrastructural evaluation of peripheral tissue biopsy material, particularly for individuals for whom there is a supporting family history. Thirdly, ultrastructural examination of the skin, and subcutaneous and striated muscle of an unrelated and apparently sporadic patient with neuropathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of CADASIL in meningeal and cerebral vessels failed to reveal diagnostic lesions in peripheral arteries. Thus, the possibility of a false-negative pathologic diagnosis in patients with a clinicoradiologic diagnosis of CADASIL, if one relies solely on a peripheral tissue biopsy, does exist. Additionally, we have identified heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and αB crystallin) and ubiquitin in the vascular myocytes of affected arteries. αB crystallin also seemed to be deposited extracellularly, which suggests that GOM also might be immunoreactive for αB crystallin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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